sap sd interview questions

SAP SD Interview Questions and Answers

Q.What Stands for SPRO?

Answer:  SPRO stands for SAP Project Reference Object

SPRO is used to configure the SAP System as per client’s requirement.   IMG (Implementation Management Guide) menu which you will find customization settings for all SAP modules, will be shown after executing SPRO transaction.

Q.What is Functional Specs?

Answer: Functional specification is a comprehensive document which describes the desired functionality. It contains technical information and data. It describes the scope, current functionality and desired functionality of a function/transaction

Q.What is me Variant Configuration? What are the type of questions we can expect in that ?

Answer: Variant configuration is used where you have a configurable material like computer (made up of components like processor, monitor, keyboard, mouse etc). These components are called as characteristics in variant config. Again this will be having values like processor can be either P4 or P3, monitor can be 15″ or 17″ etc. Based on the values selected the variant pricing will happen using the condition type VA00.
Q.SAP SD Customer Groups Sales Distribution Module OVS9?

Answer: SAP’s Sales and Distribution module is quite comprehensive and contains various features for analysis. One such feature within SAP SD is the creation of Customer Groups. Simply speaking, customer groups are part of the customer master data in SAP IMG. Customers are assigned to a particular customer group by assigning a two digit alphanumeric key. Such customer group key needs to be assigned to each and every customer master records. The main benefit of customer groups is that it can be used in generating statistics and creating condition records such as records for pricing.
One example which I can give is suppose you create two sets of customer groups, say Customer group A1 for domestic sales and Customer group A2 for international sales. You can choose to give discount to customer group A1 which are customers in the domestic market by creating a pricing condition for group A1. Customer groups can be created in SAP SD user the following menu path:
IMG >> Sales & Distribution >> Master Data >> Business Partners >> Customers >> Sales >> Define Customer Groups

Alternatively, one can use the transaction code OVS9. One needs to simply define a two digit alphanumeric customer group key. Once defined, the same can be assigned to a customer master record using the transaction code VD02. Such custoomer master key can be made mandatory for all customer master records.

Q.Tel about the Order to Cash Cycle ?

Answer: A customer orders some items from your company by creating a sales order

(Tcodes: VA01, VA02, VA03, Tables: VBAK, VBAP etc).
Your company decides to deliver the items ordered by the customer. This is recorded by creating a outbound delivery document (TCodes:VL01N, VL02N, VL03N, Tables: LIKP, LIPS etc).
Once the items are available for sending to the customer, you post goods issue which reduces your inventory and puts the delivery in transit. This will create a material document. You will post goods issue using VL02N but the material document created will be stored in tables MKPF, MSEG.
You will then create shipment document to actually ship the items. (Tcodes: VT01N, VT02N, VT03N, Tables: VTTK, VTTP etc).
You finally create a sales billing document. (TCodes: VF01, VF02, VF03, Tables: VBRK, VBRP etc). This will have a corresponding accounting document created that will be in BKPF, BSEG tables.
When customer pays to your invoice, it will directly hit your Account Receivables account in FI.
You will have to remember that these are not a required sequence. Some times, you may configure your system to create a SD invoice as soon as you create a sales order or you may not create a shipping document at all. This is the position where Functional Consultant would come into picture and study the company’s order to cash process and configure the SAP system to do so.

Q.Explain how we will configure milestone billing , periodic billing and which scenario we will use?

Answer: Menu path: IMG->sales & distribution->Billing->billing plans->define billing plan types.

You set the start date and end dates if applicable to the type of billing you are using. What time to be billed (end of month, start of month etc..)

Milestone is a billing plan type where a customer is billed for the amount distributed between the dates until total value is reached eg: if the total billing amount is 1000 USD for a year. You will bill the customer in different amounts say 200, 500, 300 at different intervals as per customer agreement.
On the other hand Periodic billing is billing the customer for the total amount(here 1000 USD) at regular intervals periodically until the customer agreement is reached. eg: 1000/12 for a 1 year agreement and say billed at the 1st day of every month

Explanation for Billing Plan for Milestone Billing

Milestone billing means distributing the total amount to be billed over multiple billing dates in the billing plan. As each milestone is successfully reached, the customer is billed either a percentage of the entire project cost or simply a pre-defined amount. During sales order processing, the system determines from the item category whether a billing plan is required and, if so, which type of plan ,The type of billing plan that is determined at this point is set up in Customizing and cannot be changed in the sales document. Billing plans for periodic billing and milestone billing plans for project-related milestone billing have different overview screens so that you can enter data relevant to your processing.

Q.why to Search for a transaction code ?

Answer: If you’re not sure what a transaction code is, or you know the transaction code but can’t find it in the menu, use this transaction:
Type in the transaction code, or part of the name e.g. sales order. Any transaction name with that text in it will be shown, along with the menu path

Q.How many clients we will create in land scape (like in development server, quality server, production server ) if we are creating more than one in each server what is exact use of that client ?

Answer: Client landscape : Basic layout : dev -testing- production also
– Sandbox server . for trial and error
– Development server for actually creating transports(CTS)
– Global server. If you have global implementations at different client locations (eg; canada, US, UK) (for testing purposes with actual master data as well)
– Testing server.(for regression testing purposes before moving to prodcution, integration etc..)
– Production server is the actual production system

The clients could be variable and could be created to a specific server . usually a developed. where abap, functional would mess around. say : client 100-functinal consultants ,client 300- abapers ,client 400- other users(like super etc)

Q.What is the Definition of Transaction?

Answer: A transaction in SAP is like a program in normal computer languages, and is identified by a four-character transaction code. A transaction can be initiated directly from the command field on the presentation interface or from the corresponding menu option. There are two kinds of transactions: report and dialog transactions.

Report transactions are SAP programs that collect selection parameters from the selection
screen followed by the output called the lists.

Dialog programs consist of more than one interactive screen called a dynpro. These transactions sometimes also need pre selected information for triggering them, not unlike the explicit selection screens in report programs; these are called parameter transactions.

Q.What are the responsibilities of “CORE TEAM” and “FUNCTIONAL TEAM” in an implementation?

Answer: Core Team are the power users who are selected for the SAP implementation. The Functional Team gather the initial implementation requirement from these core team users who will be the bridge between the SAP Functional Team and their department users with the expert work knowledge.

Q.whether it is possible to have a Customized of Transaction code or self defined transaction code in SAP?

Answer: One of the most asked question in a SAP interview is whether it is possible to have a self defined transaction code in SAP. The answer to the question is simple and if given tactfully can impress the interviewers.

To start with, yes, self-defined reports, transactions or functions are possible within SAP. There might be numerous reasons why a company might go in for customized transaction codes or for that matter reports. To cater to this demand, SAP allows creation of user-defined transaction codes.

Creating a transaction code allows the user to speed up access to specific reports/programs as the user no longer needs to use transaction code [SA38]. Thus, instead of using T-Code SA38, then entering the program name or report name and pressing execute, the same can be done directly through a pre-defined T-Code. The user can then simply use a transaction code, which will automatically open the program. In SAP customized T-codes can be created through transaction code [SE93].

Q.How to Find the Frequently used SAP Transaction code?

Answer: If you are the kind of person who stores his frequently used SAP transactions in his memory instead of his favorites folder, you might from time to time run out of memory and experience some difficulties to remember a specific transaction code.

On the other hand, if you work with the SAP menu and spare a bit your memory, you might also have some problems from time to time to find your way back in the SAP menu to a specific transaction.

Here are 2 tips to find back your transactions. The first one is more targeted towards specialists as you might need advanced authorizations to run it while the second one is more generic and standard.

Using table TSTCT Executing transaction SE16 on table TSTCT and selecting as language field (SPRSL) ‘EN’ for English, you may try and find transaction codes based on their texts. Note that you may use ‘*’ generic characters in the text search and that the search IS case-sensitive.

Using transaction SEARCH_SAP_MENU As its name indicates, transactions SEARCH_SAP_MENU searches the SAP menu for a transaction code or text you specify and outputs the directory path to the transactions.

Note that not only transactions are matched against the search text but also transactions directories themselves (they are easily recognized because they have no associated transaction code in the resulting list). Another big advantage of this method is that the search IS NOT case-sensitive

Q.what is the method of time saving Transactions ?

Answer: System transaction codes can be entered in the command field to go directly to a transaction or a function. The following conventions are important time-saving tips for using transaction codes

/n – cancels the current transaction

/nxxxx – initiates the specified transaction directly from an another transaction

/o – displays an overview of sessions

/oxxxx – initiates the specified transaction in a new session

/nend – ends the logon session with a confirmation pop-up window

/nex – ends the logon session without a confirmation pop-up window

/i – deletes the current session

Q.What are posting Keys and How are they used while making postings?

Answer: Posting Keys are defined at Client Level. Posting keys determine whether a line item is a debit or credit as well as the possible field status for the transaction. In this context, it is essential to understand the factors that determine the field status of a transaction. The field status within a FI document is controlled by Accout Type, field status of Posting Key and the field status of the G/L account.

Modifying the SAP delivered Posting keys are not recommended. if a posting key is to be modified the best possible action is to copy the posting key that needs to be modified and then modify the copy. we can define the posting keys using the transaction OB41.

It also determines the account type to which the debit or credit is to be made and whether it is Spl G/L transaction. If it is a Spl G/L transaction, then the field for Spl G/L indicator becomes required entry.

Q.what is the method of Automatic Account Assignment in SD ?

Answer: During goods issue in the sales cycle, the system is usually configured to update the relevant GL accounts automatically and to create the relevant accounting documents. This customization in IMG is also called material account assignment and is achieved through a number of steps as detailed below:

Determine ‘valuation level’ (Company Code or plant).

Activate ‘valuation grouping code’ and link it with the ‘chart of accounts’ for each ‘valuation area.’

Link ‘valuation class’ with ‘material type’ (FERT, HAWA, HALB, etc.) with the ‘account category reference’ (combination of valuation classes).

Maintain ‘account modification codes’ for ‘movement types.’

Link ‘account modification codes’ with ‘process keys’ (transaction/event keys).

Maintain a GL account for a given combination of ‘chart of accounts’+ ‘valuation grouping code ‘+’ account modification code ‘+’ valuation classes.’

The process of Automatic Account Determination is as follows:

Depending on the ‘plant’ entered during goods issue (GI), the ‘Company Code’ is determined by the system which in turn determines the relevant ‘Chart of Accounts.’

The plant thus entered in goods issue determines the ‘valuation class’ and then the ‘valuation grouping code.’

The ‘valuation class’ is determined from the ‘material master.’

Since the ‘account modification code’ is assigned to a ‘process key’ which is already linked to a ‘movement type,’ the ‘transaction key’ (DIF, GBB, AUM, BSX, etc.) determines the ‘GL account’ as posting transactions are predefined for each ‘movement type’ in ‘inventory management

Q.What are the Movement types in MM ?

Answer: In SAP Materials Management, goods movement is distinguished using a three digit key which is called the “movement type”. The movement type is important because it controls the screen layout, adjustment of inventories, the GL account for financial purposes etc. Goods movement have been discussed elaborately here. The various types of material movement types in SAP materials management MM are given below:

Movement Type and Goods Movement

101 Goods receiving for ordering
104 Goods receiving blocking status for ordering
122 Return delivery to suppliers
201 Goods outflow (WA) to cost centers
221 Goods outflow to project
231 Goods outflow to customer order
241 Goods outflow to factory
251 Goods outflow to sales
261 Goods outflow to order
291 Goods outflow for all account allocations
321 Release from quality checking
551 Goods outflow for scrap
321 Release from quality checking
451 Returns from customers
453 Inventory to inventory transfers
501 Goods receiving without order
511 No cost delivery
521 Internal goods receiving without manufacturing order
561 Inventory taking

Q.what are Types of Stock ?

Answer: Used in the determination of available stock of a material, the Stock Type is the sub-division of inventory at a storage location based on the use of that inventory. In SAP, there are many kinds of stock types:

Valuated Stocks are the stocks which belongs to your company. There are three types of valuated stocks

Unrestricted Stock is the physical stock that is always available at a plant/storage location

Quality Inspection Stock is not counted for unrestricted use and may be made available for MRP. To give an example, you want to do inspection on arrival, you shift your stock to Quality inspection stock then you do the quality inspection

Blocked stock is not counted as unrestricted stock and is not available for MRP.

Non Valuated stock is the stock which you will keep in your premised and this is not valuated in your company

The GR-blocked stock denotes all the stock accepted ‘conditionally’ from the vendors. This stock is not considered available for ‘unrestricted use.’ You will use the Movement Type 103 for the GR-blocked stock and Movement Type 101 is used for a normal GR.

Special stock is the stock managed separately that does not belong to company or that are stored at particular location

Q.Explain & How is Stock Transfer between Plants happens?

Answer: 1- Step Transfer
This process describes to transfer the material stock between plants 1-step. This type of stock transfer can only be carried out in Inventory Management. Neither Shipping in the issuing plant nor purchasing in the receiving plant is involved in the process. Transferring stock in one step has the following characteristics: – The stock transfer is entered as a transfer posting in Inventory Management. Creating a reservation can plan the transfer posting. The quantity of the stock transferred is posted immediately from the unrestricted-use stock of the issuing plant to the unrestricted-use stock of the receiving plant The transfer posting is valuated at the valuation price of the material in the issuing plant. If the plants involved belong to different company codes, the transfer between plants is also a transfer between company codes. In this case, the system creates two accounting documents for the transfer posting. The stock posting is offset against a company code clearing account.

2- Step Transfer
This process describes to transfer the material stock between plants in 2-step. This type of stock transfer can only be carried out in Inventory Management.

If you post a stock transfer from plant to plant using the two-step procedure, you post the removal from storage at the issuing plant first. After you post the removal from storage, the quantity being transferred is managed in stock in transfer at the receiving plant. It is not yet part of unrestricted-use stock, however. You post the placement into storage at the receiving plant in a second step. Only then are the event completed and the transferred quantity part of unrestricted-use stock.

Possible reasons for carrying out the a stock transfer in two steps may be: The plants are located at quite a distance from each other and the goods are in transit for a prolonged period of time; or there is one employee responsible at each plant, and each can only post movements for his/her own plant.

Q.Explain what is Physical Inventory?

Answer: Main Business Scenario: Your enterprise has to carry out a physical inventory of its warehouse stocks at least once per fiscal year to balance its inventory. Various procedures can be implemented for this.

In a periodic inventory, all the enterprise’s stocks are physically counted on the balance sheet key date. Every material has to be counted. During counting, the entire warehouse must be blocked for material movements.

In the continuous inventory procedure, stocks are counted continuously throughout the entire fiscal year. In this case, it is important to ensure that every material is physically counted at least once during the fiscal year.

You can also implement special procedures, such as cycle counting (physical inventory at regular intervals) and inventory sampling (physical inventory of randomly selected stocks).

Physical Inventory types:

Periodic; Sampling; Continuous; Cycle Counting

With both continuous and periodic inventory types, the following stock types can be included in the physical inventory:

-Unrestricted use stocks in warehouse
-Quality inspection stocks
-Blocked stock

The cycle counting inventory method creates a physical inventory document only for stock type 1 (unrestricted use). The inventory sampling procedure is only applicable to stock types 1 (unrestricted use) and 2 (quality inspection stocks).

The Physical Inventory Process: Create physical inventory document->Set blocking indicator->Print physical inventory document->Enter count results->List of differences->Post differences

Physical Inventory Number:

The physical inventory number was created as an additional hierarchy above the physical inventory document number. You can use it to group together different physical inventory
documents that belong together organizationally.

You assign physical inventory numbers when you create and change physical inventory documents, and you can use them as an extra selection criterion for physical inventory reports. This enables you to directly display the physical inventory documents per storage location, customer, or vendor.

If you have not finished entering the complete physical inventory count, you can freeze the book inventory balance in the physical inventory document to prevent goods movements from changing the book inventory balance relevant to the physical inventory count, which would result in incorrect inventory differences. You define in Customizing for Inventory Management whether you can freeze book inventory balances in the storage location.

When entering a physical inventory count with reference to a physical inventory document that contains many items with a quantity of zero, you can set zero count automatically for all items that have not yet been counted.

In Customizing for Inventory Management, you can define the following value tolerances for posting inventory differences for a user group:

maximum amount per physical inventory document maximum amount per document item

Relevant tables:

IKPF: Header: Physical Inventory Document

ISEG: Physical Inventory Document Items

Q.What is the function of counter in pricing procedure ? Please explain with an example ?

Answer: Counter is used to show a second mini-step within an actual step. For example, you may have all your freight charges assigned to step 100, however there may be three condition

types, each representing a different freight charge. Thus you can assign a freight condition type to step 100 counter 1, another to step 100 counter 2; another to step 100 counter 3; and so on

Q.What is the use of VPRS, EK01 and Ek02? For material cost we are using VPRS why we need EK01 and EK02 ?

Answer: VPRS is the internal price condition which is copies from material master and can not be manual procss.It is mainly used to calculate revenue sv from particular material. EK01 is for actual costing EK02 is for calculates costing for costing purpose.

Q.What is the purpose of the request number which is generated when u save a customization?

Answer: Request # will be of format SysIdKxxxxxx, where sys id is your DEV(development), QAS (Quality) or PRO (Production) clients, letter K followed by a 6 digit number. Each rask in IMG is attached with a Req #. When we need to transport the requests from 1 client to another Eg: DEV to QAS, we 1st need to release lower level requests followed by higher level requests using SE09 / SE10. Only then we will sbe able to transport them which Basis guy does

Q.What is the advantage of using the text as a reference instead of duplicating it?

Answer: In general: Referencing avoids data entry errors and allows a standard message relayed. And To reduce load on the system referencing is considered better than copying.

Q.where is Integration happened between the SD and FI-CO ?

Answer: A key feature of an enterprise data system such as SAP is integration of function where events occuring in the system cause accounting entries to be made automatically when the events happen. This means that there is no lag between events and the books.

To facilitate this process SAP uses this basic method:

The account key determines the type of price and discount calculation made

The type of sales revenue posting to feed data into profitability analysis

The customer master record is the source for data

The material master record is the source for data on what was shipped from inventory

Q.What are the condition conversion and customer/material conversion in the Organization structure, how do you navigate? Please answer with example?

Answer:  In the Organization Structure if you have more than one distribution channel and division then you have to go for common Dist. Channel t/c VOR1 and similar for division VOR2 or SPRO>Sale and Distribution>Master A) DCDC and DCD

Q.In consignment fill up we delivery goods to customer site, is there any agreement with customer? if yes what type of agreement(relating price)?if no with out agreement how can we place rupees lacks of amount to customer site?

Answer: Yes, there is always an agreement that the customer will sell or consume the materials. Billing is done only when the customer actually sells or consumes the materials. The unsold goods or unused materials are our materials and the customer can return them (if he wants). Materials may be kept at either customer’s site or our site. Ownership of material passes only in case of :

1) Consignment Issue : from us to customer i.e. when the customer actually sells or consumes the material.

2) Consignment Return : from customer back to us.

It does not pass in case of : Fill-up or Pick-up.

Q.When will you combine deliveries into one invoice?

Answer: 1 we will combine multiple deliveries into one invoice, when the bill to party , payment terms and billing date is same. And also when billing date, that means billing is done only once in a month for that particular customer, then you combine all deliveries of that month create invoice

2 In one scenario it depends up on the customer master data in the following way if that specific customers have multiple ship to parties as mentioned in partner functions of the master data of the customer and for all these ship to parties there will be unique bill to party or payer this takes place. If the confirm delivery date of materials to different ship to parties must be unique.

3)In another scenario it depends up on the availability check in the following as it depends up the checking group if the system finds collective requirement in the checking group of this material master record of the specified material it combines all the deliveries and transfers to the billing document as one invoice.

Q.How to stop PGI?

Answer: We Can’t stop PGI (Post Goods Issue ), if u want to reversal u can use VL09 and then cancelled delivery to use transaction VLO2N.

Q.Tell me a few tickets handled by you during your support?

Answer: Material Discount was not included in Pricing Procedure.

  1. Tax was not configured in Pricing.
  2. Material was required to be substituted by some other material during unavailability.
  3. It was required to assign new Partner to Customer.
  4. It was required to make some fields in Material Master as required entry

A2. first of of all tickets are the requirement which comes from client side or by the end users .the

ticket which i faced was client wants to give discount if customers pay within given period of time say 20days he will get 10% discount and 5% 10days before 20days and 2% 5 days before 10days.My problem is that i am unable to insert 2%discount in terms of payment how to solve it.

2nd Ticket was client wants transportation zone in pricing which not maintained in field catalog,

3rd Ticket was client wants vprs should be his selling price i.e pr00 should not be maintained.

Q.User-specific parameters means? How to create that one?

Answer: These parameters are specific to the logon user id. you can access this by going to pull down main menu–System- User Profile–> Own data–> in that the 3rd Tab page.

A 2> These are module specific parameters which serve different purposes. Ex-EFB parameter for MM Purchase order-Prices display

Q.Explain to me in detail Alternate condition base value, and alternate calculation type?

Answer: ALTERNATE CALCULATION TYPE : This function allows you use a formula as an alternative in finding the value of the condition type, instead of standard condition technique. this can be used to calculate complex tax structures.

ALTERNATE CONDITION BASE VALUE : The alternative condition base value is a formula assigned to a condition type in order to promote an alternative base value for the calculation of a value.

Q.what r all the documents will generate after saving invoice?

Answer: After saving invoice 5 documents are generated:

  1. Revenue Account
  2. Customer Receivables Account
  3. profit center Account.
  4. Special Purchase Ledger Account
  5. Profit Analysis Account.

Q.What is Business Process Reengineering ? Explain it ?

Answer: BPR means the existing business process how you re-engineered to get client requirements. (Line items clearing at the time of customer receipts which is not exists in the legacy)

Q.What are the two user exits you have used in your project?

Answer: Examples of user exits : MV50AFZZ i used it to carry out availability check for batch managed materials

Q.In sales order how system does picks up plant?

Answer:  first system looks in the following way :

1) Customer material Info Record

2) Customer master record

3) Material Master Record

Q.How is shipping point determined?

Answer: shipping point will be determined based on the shipping conditions, loading group and delivery plant.

Q.Where do you assign Movement Type?

Answer: we assign movement type in schedule line category. As is is related to transfer.

Q.What is out put of Blue print ?

Answer: Blue print means collecting the business requirements and mapping these with in sap R/3 if propose is not met then some other solution how to map in SAP R/3 i.e AS IS – TO BE study so the out put will be under standing the requirements and providing the solution in sap with flow charts and get the acceptance from the business team before configure the system i.e realization stage

Q.Who are called Super users when it comes to training in SAP ?

Answer: There are Consultants, Power users, End users in a SAP R/3 system.

The users are differentiated by the level of authorization

End users— Normaly are given authorisation to only specific transactions ( T.codes)– like creation of Sale order, Delivery, transfer order etc etc.. For eg a person in the ware house would only be given authorization to create, Transfer orders and not to create Sale orders. Similarly a sales person will have the authorization to create SOs and not TOs.

Power Users— People who have additional authorizations to change or add data to make the system adapt to day to day business requirements are power users. Master record creation, Condition record creation. These people sometimes are also allowed to view the customization screens and normally not allowed to make any changes in the customization.

Consultants— These people (We) mainly work in customization. their authorization level depends on the Server they work on. For eg: In development server to all screens In testing server except few critical customization screen to all screens

In production server – To get any screen in production to end user, here user role can be changed by the help of basis to work in production server in case of emergency like they would like to find the root cause of the error which happens only in production server and not in any other server.

Q.How to handle returnable packing material? what is the process involved in it?:

Answer: Returnable packaging consists of materials that are stored at the customer location but which remain the property of your company. The customer is only required to pay you for the returnable packaging if he does not return it to you by a specified time. Ex: Coke Bottles, retailers have to return them to the factory.

Item Category Group LEIH. and Treated as Special Stock. Pick up and issue will be available like consignment.

Q.In order to make up a Sales Area which Organizational Elements will help?

Answer: In Order to make Sales Area following Organizational elements Are required.

1 Sales Organization.

2 Distribution Channel.

3 Division.

Q.What is the difference between condition type EK01 and EK02?

Answer: EK01 IS A CALCLATED COST

EK02 IS A ESTIMATED COST

Q.If we don’t give the horizon period in dynamic credit check what will happen?

Answer: 1. IT WILL work as STATIC OR SIMPLE CREDIT CHECK

  1. AS YOU ARE NOT MAINTAINING THE CREDIT HORIZON FOR CHECKING PURPOSE SYSTEM WILL CONSIDER TODAY’S DATE AS DEFAULT.

Q.Customer hierarchies use?

Answer: customer hierarchies are use to show the tree structure of the customer in the company. it is used to give the discount based on the hierarchy. for rebate processing the customer hierarchies are used to give the exact discount.

Q.What do you mean by POD(proof of delivery) what is the use of pod? What are the con figuration you done in your project?

Answer: Proof of delivery is the confirmation, sent by the customer upon goods receipt. Company will raise the billing document based on that confirmation. They normally use an intermediate document with application link enabling. On the whole, It is done by an abapers.

Q.What is BADI’s and Explain it ?

Answer: Badis stands for Business Add Ings. and it is for enhancements in the application area. main use of it is Reusability, BADI’s are oops based. BADI’s can be used any number of times in a project.

Q.Can we have different pricing procedure for sales order and invoice?

Answer:  1. yes , you can do it by assigning different doc pricing procedure for sales doc. eg. you can assign different Doc pricing procedure for OR, F2, accordingly different pricing procedure will be determined for both document. ( you will have to assign this DocPP in pricing procedure determination)

2. Yes it is possible to have a PricProc in Billing different from that of SO. Since the PricProc determination takes place at invoice level also. Generally, the Sales area & CPP (Cust pricing Proc) indicator won’t change, however the DPP (Document Pricing Procedure) can be different for the billing type than that of sales order type. enhance a different Pricing proc can be determined. However, in practice, people may not be doing this.

Q.Different between inquiry and quotation?

Answer:  1, Inquiry is just a simple document showing some interest shown by the prospective customer on products and services offered by the company. Date and Price nothing is relevant here.

BUT quotation is a legal agreement which is given/offered to the Customer. The company will agree to the customer, that company will charge a particular amount to a particular quantity of a particular product and this agreement is time limited and not valid after that time duration.

2.Quotation is legally binding offer from sales organization to a customer for providing goods and services under certain fixed conditions Quotation id valid for limited period only

Q.What is the use of column CONDITION TYPE in Pricing procedure determination. Like sales area + customer. pp+ Doc. pp+ Pricing procedure+ CONDITION TYPE, without maintain condition type system get pricing procedure in sales order then what is the use of this column ?

Answer: To be more clear, the condition type entered along with the pricing procedure determination would become a column in the line item of the sale order. so instead of going into the item data conditions screen and entering the value , you can straight away enter it in the line item

Q.What is transfer order?
Answer: An instruction to move materials from a source storage bin to a destination storage bin in a warehouse complex at a specified time. A transfer order consists of items that contain the quantity of the material to move and specifies the source and destination storage bins. A transfer order can be created based on a customer delivery, a transfer requirement, or a posting change notice. Source and destination storage bins can be in different warehouses.
Application:
This is the term of Warehouse Management (LE-WM) and linked into SD Module, where clients business run through Warehouse
Related Transaction:
VL01N
LT03
LT09
VL02N
Q.What are the fields in pricing procedure?
Answer: There are 16 columns in pricing procedure
1. Step
2. Counter
3. Condition type
4. Description
5. From
6. To
7. Manual
8. Mandatory
9. Statistical
10.Print
11.Subtotal
12.Print
13.Alternative calculation type
14.Altenate condition base value
15.Account key
16.Accruals
Q.What are the Standard output types in SD?
Answer: Standard Output Types in SD are as under:
1. Sales Order Confirmation: BA00
2. Outbound Delivery Note: LD00
3. Billing Document: RD00
5. Cash Sales: RD03
6. Inquiry: AF00
7. Quotation: AN00
8. Contract: KO00
9. Picking List: EK00
Q.What is Condition type?
Answer: A condition type is one which describes that what is the purpose of that condition i.e. it represents a real time pricing like price, discount, freight or taxes condition types are used to define how the particular condition is going to perform. Condition types are linked to access sequence which in turn is linked to condition tables. Condition types are used wherever we use condition technique. Hence it is used in pricing, material determination, output control, etc.Some important condition types in pricing are pr00-pricing, kfoo-freight, k007-customer discount…
Q.What is difference between delivery document & scheduling?
Answer: Delivery doc is the actual delivery that we create in VL01N for the sales order.
Delivery scheduling is the process by which system proposes the confirmed delivery date when a sales order is loaded.
For eg consider that the customer has placed an order on 8th Sep & requested delivery RDD on 12th. Consider that you have maintained 2 days as transit time, 1 day as loading time & 1 day as pick pack time. Then the system initially carries backward scheduling from the RDD. So from 12th, it will calculate backwards. So your goods should leave your shipping point by 10th, loading should start by 9th, pick pack should start on 8th. System will see is material is available on 8th. If yes, then it will confirm the requested delivery date RDD. If not, system will check for the material availability date MAD. If MAD is on 10th, then system will do forward scheduling from 10th. So items can be picked by 11th, loading done on 12th & goods will reach customer on 14th (2 days transit). So confirmed delivery date is 14th. System will propose this date as delivery date in shipping view of sales order main screen. This process is called delivery scheduling.

Q.What is Extract used in condition tech. in pricing?
Answer:  condition tech is the main backbone of pricing without condition there is no pricing
Condition tables + access sequence + condition type + Pricing procedure = Condition technique
Q.What is the difference between plant and storage location?
Answer: – plant is place where Production/assembling of material is done as per PP-module, place where Storage/purchasing of material done as per MM-module and for sales plant is place where sales and service is provided.
– Storage Location is a place allotted inside a plant for the purpose to maintain the stock. The same considered for all modules (PP, SD, & MM)
Q.What is the purpose of sales document type?
Answer: Sales documents is nothing but data container, and its a proof of transactions to simplify business process document categorized into 3 types :sales document, delivery document , billing document sales document :sales related data is going to be captured here to map different process transactions sap has categorized into 4 types.
Presales order: inquiry, quotation (IN, QT)
Standard order: OR, cash rush
Customer outline agreement: Scheduling agreement-DS & contracts
Customer complaints: credit, debit (G2, L2)
The functions of sales document type are:
It can determine whether the sales doc of that type is blocked or not, No. ranges for the documents, whether a reference doc is mandatory or not, whether it should read cus.material info record, whether the system should run credit checks and how it should respond etc..
A sales document type fulfills a requirement of a specific business transaction.. for example in a cash sale you would require the delivery to be happening immediately after the order and you would require a invoice slip to be handed over to the customer immediately after his purchase. These things are customized in your Cash sales(CS) document type..

SAP SD Interview Questions                 SAP SD Interview Questions and Answers

Q.What is an integration point between SD AND MM?
Answer: Link Between SAP SD, MM & FI
The link between SD and MM :-
1. When you create sales order in SD, all the details of the items are copied from Material master of MM.
2. MRP and availability check related data is also taken from MM although you control this data in SD also.
3. While you create inbound/outbound delivery with reference to a sales order, the shipping point determination takes place with the help of the loading group, plant data, shipping conditions etc. This also refers to Material Master.
4. The material which you are entering in a sales order must be extended to the sales area of your sales order/customer otherwise you cannot transact with this material.
There are many such links between SD and MM.
Now the link between SD and FI :-
1. Whenever you create a delivery with reference to a sales order, goods movement takes place in the background. eg.In case of standard sales order, you create an outbound goods delivery to the customer. Here movement 601 takes place. This movement is configured in MM. Also, this movement hits some G/L account in FI. Every such movement of goods hits some G/L account.
2. The accounts posting in FI is done with reference to the billing documents (invoice, debit note, credit note etc) created in SD. Thus this is a link between SD and FI
3. Tax determination: In case of a tax determination also, there is a direct link between SD and MM .
SD Integration points with other modules SD module is highly integrated with the other modules in
SAP. Sales Order
Integration Points Module
Availability Check – MM
Credit Check – FI
Costing – CO/ MM
Tax Determination – FI
Transfer of Requirements – PP/ MM
Delivery & Goods Issue
Integration Points Module
Availability Check – MM
Credit Check – FI
Reduces stock – MM
Reduces Inventory $ – FI/ CO
Requirement Eliminated – PP/ MM
Billing –
Integration Points Module
Debit A/R – FI/ CO
Credit Revenue – FI/ CO
Updates G/L – FI/ CO
(Tax, discounts, surcharges, etc.)
Milestone Billing – PS

Return Delivery & Credit Memo –
Integration Points Module
Increases Inventory – MM
Updates G/ L – FI
Credit Memo – FI
Adjustment to A/R – FI
Reduces Revenue – FI
Q.What are MRP types?
Answer: Material Requirement Planning is concept of planning for the demand, whether we need the material
– to be planned internally
– to be procured externally
– to be planned in external system (ex APO
– No planning
– time based planning
Q.What is use of customer group?
Answer: Customer group is used for generating statistics and also used to give group pricing, and discounts etc…
Q.What is the difference between incomplete order and backorder processing?
Answer: Incomplete orders are the orders which have not maintained Completely as to full fill the business requirement to place the order ( as defined in incompletion proc by
business).
The backorder is the order in which has not confirmed in Full or not confirmed at a requested delivery date. (Certain delivery date)
Q.Why does the customer master have different views?
Answer: The main purpose of the customer views is for each dept to determine the roles effectively in customer
GENERAL DATA- deals with all the details regarding the customer
COMPANY CODE DATA- deals with financial aspects.
SALES AREA DATA- deals with sales; billing; shipping details along with the partner determination
Q.What is t-code for listing the blocked documents?
Answer: VKM1 is for blocked document, VKM2 Released Doc.
Q.What is batch split?
Answer: If a material is managed in batches then you can carry out a batch split for every component. This means that if you Split a batch, you assign more than one batch to one
Component. In this case, each batch is displayed as a Separate component in the component overview.
Batch splits can only be triggered manually in the Production order.
The following requirements must be met for batch splitting:
(1)The material master record of the material must specify That the material is managed in batches.
(2)Batches must exist for the material.
Q.What is difference between SD account key and FI account key?
Answer: Account key is created and provided by FI. Account key determines the
G/L account to which the amount is to be posted. SD defines account key

in pricing and FI uses it for posting taxes.
To the maximum both are one and same to find the right G/L account through condition technique .SD Account key will be from Pricing procedure and the FI Account key is from the tax procedure. as far as my knowledge is concerned both the Key purpose is same.
Acct keys are defined in FI only, SD people only use them, say in pricing. But ultimately they r used for posting the amounts to relevant GL accounts only
Q.How is credit control determined?
Answer: Credit control is determined in the combination
COMPANY CODE + CUSTOMER RISK CATEGORY + CREDIT GROUP =
CREDIT CONTROL AREA
One Company code can be assigned too many credit control areas And multiple company codes are not assigned to one credit Control area.
Q.What are the parameters in FD32?
Answer: FD32 Maintains credit management records here we can give the amount of the customer WHAT IS HIS credit limit.
U can see address of the customer, Central data, status and payment history of the customer.
Q.What is the difference between routine and requirements?
Answer: Requirements are used in different area of SD, for example requirement in pricing procedure, it restrict the access of the condition type. for example the rebate condition type bo01 has the requirement 24 it means that this condition type should appear in the billing document. Routine means the program written for the requirement.ie the logic written in the ABAP code.
Q.What is condition supplement and why is it used?
Answer:
  A condition supplement is a group of conditions that should be applied every time a certain condition is found. for Eg: If u define a material price, u will enter condition records for that material and the corresponding price. If u also want to give discount to that material every time the price is determined, u can enter the discount condition type as a condition supplement. So whenever the price is determined for the material, it will automatically includes the discount condition records.
Q.What is the difference between milestone and periodic billing?
Answer:  Periodic: – full amount in each bill till contract period
Milestone: – partial amount in each bill till full amount is billed.
Milestone billing is a billing plan type where the customer have to pay the amount in parts within the billing date e.g. suppose the bill amount of the customer is 1000 usd, the customer can pay 200usd,300usd as mentioned on the Agreement whereas in periodic plan type the customer have to pay the amount in a regular periodic interval.i.e. The customer have to pay the 1000usd in 1 year then the amount payable by the customer is 1000/12.
Q.What is the difference between Static and Dynamic Credit Check?
Answer: They both are belong to automatic credit check
The only difference is Dynamic contains a time/horizon/attach period .This time period used by the system where we specify time in months .EX: 2 months .System will use this period to take open orders, open deliveries etc. to get credit exposure .Within this attached time period not after this specified period, u have to do delivery after this horizon period say 3 months latter the delivery date so system will not calculate this date
static check will carry out the open sales orders +open deliveries +open billing + open items,
dynamic check= static check+ time horizon
Q.What are the issues u have faced in integration testing?

Answer:  GL ACCOUNT CANNOT BE DETERMINED DURING INVOICING MOVEMENT TYPE NOT FOUND DURING DELIVERY STORAGE UNIT NOT FOUND IN THE BIN ERROR DURING TRANSFER ORDER CREATION FOR DELIVERY
ROUTE NOT DETERMINED DURING DELIVERY TOR CANNOT BE DONE DURING DELIVERY ETC…
Q.What is the difference between condition type EK01 and EK02?
Answer: Ek01- the result of unit costing can be used as base for price (pr00) determination.
Ek02- the result of unit costing simply taken as a statistical value
Q.What is the Function of item category group?
Answer: The item category group determines how a material is processed in the sales order. It defines, for example, that pricing does not take place for a free of charge item, such
as a business gift; or that inventory management is not carried out for a service. When processing sales and distribution documents, the system uses the item category
group to determine the item category. The system determines the item category based on the item category group of the material and the current business transaction, and proposes
it in the respective document.
hen creating the material types non-stock material and
services, DIEN is proposed in both cases for the item category group, because the order processing for both material types is identical: for example, pricing is carried out for both, but no availability check.
Q.What is pricing procedure?
Answer: A pricing procedure is a procedure by where in which you control the execution of condition types in a sequence you would like . It not only executes the condition types but als0 controls the execution of condition type by the use of requirements , altcv. altcbv, account key.
Pricing procedure is a systematic and sequential use of condition types to arrive at a right value of the product.To determine the pricing procedure
SALES AREA (Sales Organization + Distribution Channel +Division) + CUSTOMER PRICING PROCEDURE + DOCUMENT PRICING PROCEDURE
Q.What is condition exclusion?
Answer:  If we set an exclusion indicator in the definition of condition type during sales document processing the system ignores the other condition type which exits below that in
the pricing procedure and which have same requirement.
Q.Which delivery document type for STO process?
Answer: For intracompany STO the delivery doc type is NL(i.e. within the one company code)& for intercompany STO the delivery type is NLCC.
Q.What is difference between the header level condition and item level condition?
Answer: Header level conditions are for the whole document, while item level condition is for the particular item only. header conditions do not have access sequences and condition records, too.
Q.What is the link between credit management and subtotals?
Answer:  There is the link between credit management and subtotals. The reason why, Business grant credit to the customer. so all the credit amounts of customer must stored in corresponding tables in our sap system. so that In Pricing procedure for the condition type Net value we assign A In the field Subtotal. the table for credits is komp-cmpre
Q.What is Delivery group and what is its purpose?
Answer: delivery group is grouping of all sub item to be delivery at one time. mostly used in bill of materials.
Q.What is main purpose of maintaining the master data?
Answer:  IN SAP we can call these are master data like:
1. Customer master data
2. Material master data
3. Customer material Information record
4. When we are maintaining condition records like pricing
Condition record, rebate condition record.
THE main purpose of maintaining the master data is that when we will create any documents in sales like sales document, the data regarding customer is coming from customer master and the data regarding material is coming from material master, and for example in the sales order the delivery plant is coming from CMIR,OR CUSTOMER MASTER OR,MATERIAL MASTER ,like this…
Q.What is line item?
Answer: There are 3 levels in a sales document i.e. header level, item level and schedule line. Line item falls in the Item Level.
1)Line Item relates to material details or the item details such as item number, name of material, quantity etc.
2)The item category of the item which is determined by the system (by combination of Item Category Group from Material Master, Sales Document Type, Usage and higher level item category)is copied at Item Level of the sales documents.
3)Line Item contains the value and quantity also which are not normally found at Header Level.
4)Examples of Line items are : Material, Order Quantity, Material Group, Plant, Shipping Point, Route, Customer Material, Sales Unit, price/discount/tax/freight per unit, etc.
5)Examples of Header data will make Line Item more clear : Sold-to Party, Pricing date, Document currency, Price group, Customer Group, Incoterms, Payment terms, Purchase
Order Number etc.
Q.What is value SAP?
Answer: ASAP methodology is a methodology for component-based implementation projects.
Value SAP methodology is a methodology for evaluation, implementation and continuous business improvement.
Solution Manager is a natural extension of Accelerated SAP and Value SAP methodology. SAP SM is mandatory for all Business Suite 2005 and beyond.
Q.What happens when you overrate the customer?
Answer: You can opt for any of the following 3 :
1)credit the customer for the amount of short-charged invoice by creating a Credit Memo Request with reference to the previous invoice and create a new sales order with
correct rate
2)you can make a Credit Memo Request for the overcharged amount and make a Credit Note Billing Document to give credit for the difference amount
3)you may make an Invoice Correction Request.
Q.What are the functions performed in a support client?
Answer: The main function is resolving the day to day issues sent by the client. some times enhancements also.And also read the detailed ticket issues
Q.What is the access sequence for header conditions?
Answer:  For header conditions, no access sequence will be there. the values for header conditions should be entered manually during sales order processing. access sequence is a search strategy which finds the right condition record from the condition table.
Q.What are the highest organizational units in SD, MM, PP and FICO?
Answer:  SD—-sales organization
MM—-plant
PP—-plant
FICO—–company code

Q.What is the functionality of negative posting in billing document?
Answer: Reverse and adjustment postings can also be marked as negative postings. Negative postings are used to reduce the transaction figures in G/L, customer, and vendor accounts. This allows you to give the transaction figures (following the reversal) the status they would have had without posting the reversed document and its reversal document. This type of reversal is called a negative posting.
Its nothing but an adjustment. Lets say you have creates a bill of 10 bucks and latter you realize its not correct and the billing amount should be 8 bucks. To change the billing amount you have to create a negative bill worth -2 bucks. Its a negative bill or in other words its an adjustment of credit type. Similarly debit type adjustments are also there.
Q.What is mean of Rebate processing?
Answer: Rebate is nothing but a special discount which is given on to specific customer on certain sales volume with in specific period of time. Rebate may given on a specific customer, if he do the targeted business within the validity periods,
A rebate is a discount which is granted subsequently to a rebate recipient on the basis of defined sales volume within certain period.
There are three processes on rebate.
1:- Configuring Rebate
2:- Setting of rebate agreements
3:- managing rebate agreement & payments
But before the processing the rebate you need to activate
the following fields
:- in Payer master record
:- Sales organization
:- Billing document type.
You have following rebate agreement types for your customer.
1:- Material rebate
2:- customer rebate
3:- customer Hierarchy rebate
4:- Material group rebate
5:- Independent of sales volume.
Q.How is shipping point determined?
Answer: shipping conditions + loading group + Delivery plant = Shipping point
Q.What is the client specific data?
Answer: Client specific data refer to the data that can be accesses only when we log in to that Client
Client specific data:

a) Business data–Master data of business partners, products, pricing etc
b) Transaction data: Sales orders, delivery, billing documents etc
c) Customization data: All the IMG activities that are saved with Customizing request number form the client specific data
Q.What is ABAP debugging?
Answer: Finding the errors in ABAP program and rectifying the error at run time is done using ABAP debugging.
The ABAP debugger is the development workbench tool, which allows you stop a program during its execution when a particular condition is met.
Q.How subtotal in pp is related to credit limit?
Answer: subtotal field(A) in the pp contains the total value and this value is checked with the credit limit of the customer.
Q.What is the difference between discount and rebate?
Answer: Rebate: an incentive to be given to a customer. clubbed with qty purchased by a customer within the period specified (say one month)-conditional.
Discount doesn’t depends upon the turnover it is fixed. and can only differ from customer to customer
Q.What will you do in blue print stage?
Answer: Business Blue print is a detailed documentation of the requirements gathered from client. it represents the business process requirements of the company. It is an agreed statement of how the company intends to run its business within SAP system.
Q.What is cut over strategy?
Answer: Cutover strategy or cutover plan is the activity done in ASAP methodology, while transferring the data from the legacy system to the sap system. At this point of time the billing will be stopped, all the open orders, contracts, pricing data will be transferred as per the cutover plan which is provided by the implementation partner. Whatever you want to do on the system u need to do before or after this activity.
Q.What is the relation between PGI and TOR?
Answer: Depending up on TOR PGI takes place let me explain how it takes place when a requirement comes this is been transferred to MRP through TOR. Depending up on the availability of the material transfer of order takes place in which the requirement sits in the storage location from there picking and packing process takes place and finally PGI activity takes place.
In general
IN GENERAL TERMENOLOGY TOR IS THE ACTIVITY WHICH TAKES
PLACE BEFORE CREATING A DELIVERY DOCUMENT AND PGI PROCESS
TAKES PLACE AFTER CREATING A DELIVERY DOCUMENT.
Q.How is route determined?
Answer: Determination of the route is dependent on the following factors:
(1)Departure Country and departure zone-it gets determined from shipping point.
(2)Shipping Condition:-it is determined from sales doc. type or from SP (Customer master).
(3)Transportation Group:- it is determined from Material master.
(4) transportation Zone:- ship -to -party.
(5)Receiving country.
(6)Weight group (optional).
Q.What is consumption based planning?
Answer: Consumption-based planning is based on past consumption-values, statistical procedures for future requirements. It’s to avoid the shortfall in requirement determined from reorder point or forecast requirement.
Difference between MRP and Consumption-based planning, MRP Planning based on gross requirement through the Bill of Materials, Consumption-based planning based on past consumption-values.
Q.What is the relation ship between sales organization and plants?
Answer: (1)Sales Organization–> Plant
Sales Organization is assigned to plant in combination with Distribution Channel. Relation: Many-Many.
(2) sales Organization–> Company Code. Many-One.
(3) Plant–>Company Code. Many-One.
Q.what does Item Category Control?
Answer: An item category controls the overall behavior of an item. It determines whether the item is relevant for pricing or not, whether it is relevant for delivery or not, whether it is relevant for billing or not. It also determines whether it is a free item, text item and it also help to determine the sales document type.
Q.What is Returnable packaging processing means?
Answer: IT is used in the process where by the business sells items to the customer. These items are packed into shipping units such as boxes and crates .Then the customer can keep the boxes and crates upto a certain period of time and then
must return the item .Should the customer not have return the shipping units within specified date or have been destroyed ,then business may bill the customer for damaged goods .
The stock we deliver as special packaging materials .We
kept at customer site .It can viewed in “MMBE”with indicator “V” .
Item category group is “VERP” .
General item category is “LEIH”.
“LAN” for returnable packaging pick up-(LA)
“LNN” for returnable packaging issue-(LN)
Material group =00804
“TAL” -item category for returnable packaging
Q.What is IMG?
Answer: 1. Step by Step plan for implementing the SAP modules.
2. Procedures that have to be performed before a certain configuration can be made.
3. Documenting the SAP R/3 configuration methodology along with the reasons for configurations.
4. It forms the crux of business transactions in an SAP implementation, and how each one of the steps in various modules have been configured.
5. Finally, all configurations and their releases for a particular SAP R/3 implementation can be checked through the SAP IMG.
Q.What is Backorder processing?
Answer: Backorder processing is functionality in SAP where you can change the commitments and over-ride the blockage of stocks marked against sales documents/deliveries. For e.g. you receive an order from a very important customer for material “A” but the entire quantity of A is committed to another customer “B” via earlier sales orders and this is where BACKORDER processing helps you to change the commitment and shift stock due for B to A. This is the benefit of this functionality.
T.C.: V_RA – Backorder Processing
Q.What are the influencing factors for account determination?
Answer:  sales amount which is in sales order will be posted into some accounts.
eg: sales price should be posted into revenues account in the same way sales discount should be posted into deduction account , other amount will post into some other account for this purpose we maintain account determination. coming to the question’s answer, influencing factors for account determination is , chart of accounts,( FI consultant will tell that chart of accounts which is used for that company code) sales organization, distribution channel, account assignment group for customer ( which is in customer master data, sales area tab page, billing view )account assignment group for material ( which is in material master record, sales organization 1 view ( not sure plz check) account key which is assigned in pricing procedure G/L account number ( FI consultant will give this number)
Q.What are dependencies in variant configuration?
Answer:  Dependencies establish relationship between characteristics and values of different characteristics. It is required to get the pricing to the sales order through Procedure(dependency), to get the BOM component selected for the material with quantity and to have the routing time for each component.
There are 5-types of dependencies…
a.Precondition …to hide characteristics and its values
b.Selection condition….to select a characteristics or values
c.Procedure..to Infer value for a characteristics
d.Action…to infer value for a characteristics but obsolete.
e.Constraint…to have a consistency value flow to configuration , it has to attach to configuration through dependency net….
Q.What is Extract used in condition tech. in pricing?
Answer:  Condition technique used condition table, condition type, access sequence, pricing procedure to determine pricing information.
Q.What is the use of pricing date in condition type?
Answer: Pricing date is the date in which the condition records are accessed. For e.g.: lets say you have the price of the material as 1000Rs till Mar 2008 as per the validity period of condition record and from April the same price of the material is 2000Rs as per the validity period of the condition record. Now your pricing date in the Sales doc
determines as which price should be taken into account. Hope you are clear now.
Q.What is the link/control between sales and distribution and quality?
Answer: When a complaint is executed. Say, a faulty material is returned back to plant from the customer/consignee. The material is taken in to the blocked stock, where by the quality link is involved. It’s the responsibility of the quality department to check the complaint and approve. That’s the reason we have billing block before issuing credit note/memo to the customer.
Q.How is access seq. controlled?
Answer: An access sequence (search strategy) is defined for each condition type (except header and manual condition type) in pricing procedure.
1. Each access performed during pricing procedure, the access sequence is made using condition table.
2. Access sequence is a search key for condition record, which made up of key fields.
3. Access sequence searches the condition records from most specific to the most general.

Example: Suppose you create a sale order for material M-10 for Customer 1500. and you had maintained the condition records for that material 100 INR for per material. and
you also maintained the condition record for Customer1500/Material M-10 also i.e. for that particular material and for that customer the Material price is 90 INR. In that condition the system pick the material price as 90 INR and reject the material discount as 100INR.
Q.What is business item?
Answer: In item category, Business item specifies whether the business data at the item level is allow to differ from business data in the document header during the sales document processing.
business data means sales data + shipping data + Billing data
If you configure (Check box active) the Business item in the Item category, system should not allow to change the Incoterms in the sales order
Q.What is Lump sum payment?
Answer: Lump sum payment is a general term. It has no different meaning in the sap. Exact meaning of lump sum is full payment.
Q.what are the Steps in consignment processing?
Answer:  In consignment process, we have 4 stages.
First phase, company fill the goods at customer site, still it is the property of company, is called as Consignment fill up,(CF)
When the customer consumes the material company issues the invoice is called as consignment issue (CI)
If the customer finds that he got any material defective he returns is called as consignment return (CR)
When customer requests the company to take back the material which is not sold by the consumer, the company will pick this stock from the customer site is known as consignment pick up (cp)
Q.What is the purpose of creating user exits?
Answer:  A user exit is a place in a software program where a customer can arrange for their own tailor-made program to be called. SAP creates user exits for specific programs, screens, and menus within standard R/3 applications.These exits do not contain any functionality. Instead, the customer exits act as hooks. You can hang your own add-on functionality onto these hooks
Q.What is the difference between VK11 & VK31
Answer: Tcode vk11 used for individual Maintenance of condition record and Tcode vk31 used for mass Maintenance of condition record
Q.What basic questions do they ask relating to order management?
Answer: Basic questions related to order management
1. In sale order what fields are mandatory We can change them as per our requirement by going into account groups and then fields
2. When u raise a sale order what field get filled by default?
3. when you save a sale order what’s the background process which takes place?
Q.How is storage location determined?
Answer:  Determination of storage location depends upon the rule mentioned in the delivery type. There are basically three rules for determining storage location, out of which we
basically use MALA rule:-
MALA Rule:-
(1)Shipping point.
(2)Plant.

(3)Storage Condition.
Other rules are MARE and RETA ,which are used for trade scenarios.
Q.What is the difference between ATP check and availability check?
Answer: ATP is know as available to promise quantities and it is
Calculated as below.
Ware house stock + planned receipts – Planned issues = ATP quantities.
Ex1. 100 + 50 -75 = 75 is ATP Quantity
Any remaining open quantity in the movement is regarded as the ATP quantity and can be used to fulfill the next Requirement.
Ex2. 25 + 100 -150 = -25 ATP Quantity,
In this case the system try to capture the stock from other inward movement and try and match the order quantity 150.and even this is not available and partially met then the system shows the negative ATP Quantities in the requirement line.
During the availability check the system determines the ATP quantities for the material and the plant. The system behaves in performing the availability check based on how the availability check is set in customizing. This can be viewed in the sales order, over view screen procurement and you can see the confirmed quantity and ATP Quantity.
Availability check:
Stock checks which is automatically carried out after every
goods movement and which should prevent the book inventory
balance of physical stock (for example, available stock)
from reaching zero.
types of Availability checks
1. Against ATP
2. Against product allocation
3. Against planning.
Availability check is based on checking group, Requirement class, and Requirement type and schedule line category.
Q.What will do in realization?
Answer: Realization phase in which the system is configured ,knowledge transfer occurs ,extensive unit testing is completed, and data mapping and data requirements for migration are defined .
The purpose of this phase is to implement the business process requirements based on business blueprint. The system configuration methodology is provided in two work
packages :baseline(major scope) and final configuration (remaining scope).Other main focal area of this phase are conducting integration tests and drawing up end user
documentation.
Q.What is the importance of release status and dynamic field?
Answer: The importance of release status in release procedures is to create the condition records purely for the planning purpose. for further clarification see release procedures in pricing.
The Dynamic field check is to determine the customer-specific fields, even the text fields.
Q.What is the parent and child relationship?
Answer: when after we r creating the IDOC type it will show screen, there we can create the segments by right click. then one pop up window will display like which segment(Ex: SEG1) u need to add to the IDOC then add the one more segment(Ex:SEG2) to the IDOC . while add SEg2 to the IDOC , pop up will display like segment name which u can add and there is the options like under which segment u need to create the segment here u can select SEG1.
now SEG1 —-> parent segment
SEG2 —-> child to the SEG1
Q.How to configure partial deliveries?
Answer: we have to mark for partial delivery either in customer master
or  In customer-material info.
Q.What is ABAP query?
Answer:  ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports
without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following
3 simple reports:
Basic List: It is the simple reports.
Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like average, Percentages.
Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. – For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.
Q.How is step and counter differentiated?
Answer:  Step Number is used to specify the sequential order for
condition types.
Counter is used when two or more Condition Types required
the same Step Number.
Ex : Step No. Counter C.Type
10 5 KOFI
10 10 KOFK
step is sequential order of a condition type.
counter is nothing but sub sequential number of a condition  type.
Q.What are the effects of PGI?
Answer: the ownership of goods will be transferred with post goods issue and it updates the stock quantity in warehouse decreases the volume of stock and increase the goods sold.and also updates the postings to G.L.A/C
Q.What is condition supplement and why is it used?
Answer: What are the Techniques in delivery scheduling? Backward scheduling & Forward Scheduling
Backward scheduling: System calculates material availability date based on the Requested delivery date. If the material is not available on that date the system calculates the earliest possible delivery date based on the material available date.
Forward Scheduling
Q.What is Replenishment lead time?
Answer: RLT=The time taken by the material to be replenished
For trading goods:
——————
RLT=plant delivery time+goods reciept processing time
For finished goods:

——————-
RLT=Inhouse production time
Q.Where is shipping conditions stored?

Answer: Shipping conditions are maintained in two places one is in customer master record under sales tab page in shipping screen and another is in sale document type. If u maintain in sale document type it over writes the value maintained in customer-material info.
Q.What is material determination?
Answer: This is setup when business requires swapping of one material by the other material in a sales document. Example – When a product is under engineering change or there is a bug and you have another product, which is acceptable as replacement, then material determination can be used to set this scenario. Old product can be replaced by new product as per the launch date of the product. Material determination is also called as “Product selection”
*It uses condition technique for material
*Material determination procedure is based on the sales document type. With condition technique, criteria can be defined and condition records can be maintained.
*Standard material determination procedure for order type OR is A00001.
*Standard material determination condition type is A001
*With standard setup, condition record for swap materials is maintained for “material entered”. It means in standard SAP, material determination is triggered when material is entered in the sales order.
*Additional criteria can be added by customizing condition type A001.
*Material condition records are maintained in the main transaction menu in master data
Swapping can be based on certain business conditions. These are called as Substitution reasons. For each substitution reason, you can define substitution strategy.
*Substitution strategy controls
*System will automatically replace product as per material determination record after carrying out availability check or can give list of substitute products for users to check and select or replace material without availability check. It can also control whether both substituted and substitute material can be displayed in the sales order or only substitute material is to be displayed in the sales order.
*It controls printing of substituted or substitute material on output types like order confirmations.
*In delivery, no material determination is carried out for items copied from the order.
*Material determination in a delivery is carried out for new items if material determination has been activated for the corresponding sales document type
Q.What is the central organizational element in purchasing?
Answer: Purchasing Organization.
Q.How is plant determined?
Answer:  System searches for the plant in the following manner:-
(1) first it searches for a plant from CMIR(customer-material info record).
(2)If it is not found there then it will search for a plant
in Customer master record of ship-to-party.
(3)If still it could not be found then it will check in
material master in Sales general/Plant view.
in this sequence the plant is determined.
Q.What is difference between listing and exclusion?
Answer: 1. Listing is nothing but whatever material u assign to particular customer, then he can access those materials .But exclusion is nothing but excluding the Particular material to the customer, then customer cannot access those materials.
For example-In pharmaceutical company, customer sometimes the customer may not have a license to sell certain product, then we can use this function.
2.Listing is suppose for a certain or group of customers u can assign materials only those can access. Exclusion is suppose u don’t want that certain materials certain customer should not access .So the particular customer can not purchase the same .
Always exclusion is having higher priority than listing. In exclusion the system refuses the entered materials if it is maintained in exclusion record for specific customer but in case of material listing it accepts only allowed material which we maintained in listing record for specific customer .
Q.How revenue account is determined?
Answer:  Revenue a/c is determination :
1. Application
2. Chart of accounts
3. Sales Org
4. Condition type
5. Account assignment group from customer
6. Account assignment group from material
7. Account key
Q.When will you combine deliveries into one invoice?
Answer: we will combine multiple deliveries into one invoice, when the bill to party , payment terms and billing date is same. And also when billing date, that means billing is done only once in a month for that particular customer, then you combine all deliveries of that month create invoice

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