What are the popular DevOps tool in 2021?
Agile is the most important principle for any software operation to work. And the Development, as well as the Operations teams, should work together to the agility of the process. The Traditional approaches fail to produce continuous development and the integration process in the software development life cycle. Then the DevOps came into existence to enable the continuity for the development and integration process and also to increase the agility of the software process. If you think of DevOps as a tool to establish the integration for development and integration process then you are wrong. Check our previous blog on What is DevOps to know the complete details on it. Today many tools were depending on these principles and many firms were using those tools for software development. Do you wanna know what are the popular DevOps tools ?. Then read the complete article on Popular DevOps tools in 2021.
The term DevOps can be described in many ways. One among them was:
DevOps is a set of principles defined to enable continuous development, continuous testing, continuous integration, and continuous deployment and continuous delivery of the software process.
Top DevOps Tools in 2021:
Today many tools that we were using were dependent on these principles. Some of them were:
Docker is a tool for containerization. This Linux –based Open-source platform focuses on containers. i.e With this tool, you can package the required software along with its dependencies as a single unit. Hence with the utilization of this tool, the user need not struggle with the depending packages everything will be taken care of by the tool itself. This tool is portable and highly secure and allows you to use any language in it. The advantage of this tool is it allows secure packaging and deploying and also allows the running of the application irrespective of the software platform. Moreover, we can easily integrate this tool with many other tools like Jenkins, Ansible, and Bamboo.
It is one of the most effective IT orchestration and configuration management tools in the market. When compared with its competitors, ansible offers a software look and does not hog on your devices in the background. This tool is primarily used for pushing the new changes within the existing system as well as configuring the newly deployed machines. Today many IT firms were using this tool due to for lowering the cost of the infrastructure and increasing replication scalability are the two major reasons.
It is another highly popular open-source DevOps tool used by industry giants like Microsoft, Facebook, and so on. This tool allows you to track your work development and enables you to coordinate with your team members. This tool is easy for experimenting with because with this tool you can easily revert to the earlier versions. This tool allows developers to make rapid iterations to the code and the notification is sent immediately to the team members. Besides this tool allows the users to create branches and add those new features when they are ready. Here, you need to host the repository for work such as Git Hub.
Would you like to know more practical knowledge on Git? Visit DevOps Online Training
This DevOps tool lets you manage and automate software inspection, operation, and delivery. This open-source tool has a solid track record and thousands of modules are easily integrated with many other platforms. For small projects, you can use this software free version and can go with the Enterprise versions for large projects. This Enterprise version lets you manage multiple teams and thousands of resources.
This powerful open-source configuration management tools let you turn the infrastructure into code to manage data, attributes, roles, environment, and many more. Like a puppet, this tool supports multiple platforms and easily integrates with cloud-based platforms. Irrespective of the size of the infrastructure, this tool is capable of automating the infrastructure configuration and the application deployment as well as manage the configuration across the network.
It is an open-source integration server, that allows you to automate the complete build of the software project. This tool is popularly used for finding the issues in the code. Besides, it is responsible for automating the delivery pipeline and lets you test and report the changes in real-time. Due to its plugin-based ecosystem, it can easily be integrated with every other DevOps tool. Today most of the tasks and the tools involved in SDLC can be automated using Jenkins and allows its team members to increase the throughput.
It is the best open-source monitoring tool. It allows the users to find and correct the problems in the network and the infrastructure. This tool has two editions Nagios Core and Nagios XI. Among those Nagios XI offers greater functionality. You can use Nagios to monitor the applications, services, network protocols, and many more. And the forum support is available in both versions.
It is relatively a new orchestration platform that lets you manage hundreds of containers. With this tool, you can deploy the containerized apps to a group of computers, and Kubernetes automates their distribution and scheduling. Users can use the Kubernetes and Docker together where Kubernetes is used as an orchestration platform and docker lets you build, distribute and run containers and the docker lets you build, distribute and run containers.
This tool allows the user to build and manage the virtual environments in a single flow whether you are a developer, designer. Here you will have the simple workflow as everyone in the team. This open-source tool aims to mirror the production environment where the bugs can be fixed early in the production process. Moreover, this tool can be easily integrated with chef, puppet ansible, and many more
This is an open-source tool from Apache that automates the build process and the resolution of dependencies. This tool is primarily used for java objects. This tool is based on the concept of the project object model that relies on XML and has predefined targets for performing the common tasks. Today most of the Maven functionality comes with plugins.
Likewise, many tools depend on the DevOps principles. By reaching the end of this blog, I hope you people have got enough knowledge on DevOps tools. You people can get the practical knowledge on these tools taught by industry professionals through DevOps Online Course. In the upcoming post of this blog, I'll be sharing the details on each tool in a separate post. Meanwhile, you people can check out our DevOps Interview Questions.
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What are the popular DevOps tool in 2021?
Agile is the most important principle for any software operation to work. And the Development, as well as the Operations teams, should work together to the agility of the process. The Traditional approaches fail to produce continuous development and the integration process in the software development life cycle. Then the DevOps came into existence to enable the continuity for the development and integration process and also to increase the agility of the software process. If you think of DevOps as a tool to establish the integration for development and integration process then you are wrong. Check our previous blog on What is DevOps to know the complete details on it. Today many tools were depending on these principles and many firms were using those tools for software development. Do you wanna know what are the popular DevOps tools ?. Then read the complete article on Popular DevOps tools in 2021. The term DevOps can be described in many ways. One among them was: DevOps is a set of principles defined to enable continuous development, continuous testing, continuous integration, and continuous deployment and continuous delivery of the software process. Top DevOps Tools in 2021: Today many tools that we were using were dependent on these principles. Some of them were: 1.Docker: Docker is a tool for containerization. This Linux –based Open-source platform focuses on containers. i.e With this tool, you can package the required software along with its dependencies as a single unit. Hence with the utilization of this tool, the user need not struggle with the depending packages everything will be taken care of by the tool itself. This tool is portable and highly secure and allows you to use any language in it. The advantage of this tool is it allows secure packaging and deploying and also allows the running of the application irrespective of the software platform. Moreover, we can easily integrate this tool with many other tools like Jenkins, Ansible, and Bamboo. 2.Ansible: It is one of the most effective IT orchestration and configuration management tools in the market. When compared with its competitors, ansible offers a software look and does not hog on your devices in the background. This tool is primarily used for pushing the new changes within the existing system as well as configuring the newly deployed machines. Today many IT firms were using this tool due to for lowering the cost of the infrastructure and increasing replication scalability are the two major reasons. 3.GIt: It is another highly popular open-source DevOps tool used by industry giants like Microsoft, Facebook, and so on. This tool allows you to track your work development and enables you to coordinate with your team members. This tool is easy for experimenting with because with this tool you can easily revert to the earlier versions. This tool allows developers to make rapid iterations to the code and the notification is sent immediately to the team members. Besides this tool allows the users to create branches and add those new features when they are ready. Here, you need to host the repository for work such as Git Hub. Would you like to know more practical knowledge on Git? Visit DevOps Online Training 4.Puppet: This DevOps tool lets you manage and automate software inspection, operation, and delivery. This open-source tool has a solid track record and thousands of modules are easily integrated with many other platforms. For small projects, you can use this software free version and can go with the Enterprise versions for large projects. This Enterprise version lets you manage multiple teams and thousands of resources. 5.chef: This powerful open-source configuration management tools let you turn the infrastructure into code to manage data, attributes, roles, environment, and many more. Like a puppet, this tool supports multiple platforms and easily integrates with cloud-based platforms. Irrespective of the size of the infrastructure, this tool is capable of automating the infrastructure configuration and the application deployment as well as manage the configuration across the network. 6.Jenkins: It is an open-source integration server, that allows you to automate the complete build of the software project. This tool is popularly used for finding the issues in the code. Besides, it is responsible for automating the delivery pipeline and lets you test and report the changes in real-time. Due to its plugin-based ecosystem, it can easily be integrated with every other DevOps tool. Today most of the tasks and the tools involved in SDLC can be automated using Jenkins and allows its team members to increase the throughput. 7.Nagios: It is the best open-source monitoring tool. It allows the users to find and correct the problems in the network and the infrastructure. This tool has two editions Nagios Core and Nagios XI. Among those Nagios XI offers greater functionality. You can use Nagios to monitor the applications, services, network protocols, and many more. And the forum support is available in both versions. 8.Kubernetes: It is relatively a new orchestration platform that lets you manage hundreds of containers. With this tool, you can deploy the containerized apps to a group of computers, and Kubernetes automates their distribution and scheduling. Users can use the Kubernetes and Docker together where Kubernetes is used as an orchestration platform and docker lets you build, distribute and run containers and the docker lets you build, distribute and run containers. 9.Vagrant: This tool allows the user to build and manage the virtual environments in a single flow whether you are a developer, designer. Here you will have the simple workflow as everyone in the team. This open-source tool aims to mirror the production environment where the bugs can be fixed early in the production process. Moreover, this tool can be easily integrated with chef, puppet ansible, and many more 10.Maven: This is an open-source tool from Apache that automates the build process and the resolution of dependencies. This tool is primarily used for java objects. This tool is based on the concept of the project object model that relies on XML and has predefined targets for performing the common tasks. Today most of the Maven functionality comes with plugins. Likewise, many tools depend on the DevOps principles. By reaching the end of this blog, I hope you people have got enough knowledge on DevOps tools. You people can get the practical knowledge on these tools taught by industry professionals through DevOps Online Course. In the upcoming post of this blog, I'll be sharing the details on each tool in a separate post. Meanwhile, you people can check out our DevOps Interview Questions.Continue reading
What is AWS?
Many people in today's world say technology has changed the things around us in a different way. Let us consider it with an example. In the olden days, if the company wants to have a physical presence in the technological space they need to have a data center, a place to host computers, and IT Team to run everything. Besides, they also need backup, redundant power, and also temperature control to run the machines. In simple words, it requires a lot of resources, time, and effort to run the firm successfully. But to set up all these, it cost high, where the companies were not in a position to afford? Hence we need a solution to overcome this problem. AWS is the best solution to this problem. Do you know what is AWS? How does it help solve the problems? Read the complete article to know the details. AWS is an Amazon cloud computing platform that offers a flexible, scalable, reliable, easy-to-use, and cost-effective cloud computing solutions. Before going to know AWS, let us initially have a look at cloud computing What is Cloud computing? Cloud Computing is defined as the on-demand availability of system resources. These include data storage, computing power without user interaction. This term is generally used to describe data centers available to multiple users over the internet. Since we people have got enough idea regarding Cloud Computing, let us move into the actual concept What is AWS? It is a comprehensive cloud computing platform offered by Amazon. This platform is developed with the combination of Infrastructure as a service (Iaas), Software as a Service(Saas), and other packaged software as services(Saas) offerings. It was initially launched in 2006 from the internal infrastructure that Amazon.com is capable of building online retail operations. It was the first company to introduce pay as you go, model. Besides, it scales to provide the users with computing storage, throughput as needed. AWS offers many different tools and solutions for enterprises and software developers that can be used in data centers up to 190 countries. This cloud computing service is capable of providing servers, storage networking, remote computing, email, mobile development, and security. This AWS is broken into three different products like EC2, Virtual machine service, Glacier, low-cost cloud computing storage, S3, and so on. Get more information on AWS from live experts at AWS Online Training Why AWS? Today many firms opt this cloud computing service due to exciting features. Let us have a quick look at why people opt this cloud computing service a)Cost Savings: Since this cloud computing service is capable of providing all the required services to the users, there is no necessity of setting up the hardware set up (or) buying the software license. Hence as mentioned above, users can get all the desired services at a minimum price. b)Scalable: Scalability is the most important factor in the utilization of cloud computing services. This cloud computing platform is capable of scaling the cloud services as per demand. Hence cloud computing users can pay only for the amount of the service utilized but for the infrastructure cost. This feature suits best for the start-up to get the desired services at low prices. c)Security and Reliability: When compared to its hosting services, AWS is the best option in providing security to its users. As mentioned above, this cloud computing service has dozens of data centers across the globe. Hence the data lost in the data center will be replicated by the other data center. So there is no point of data loss in the cloud computing platforms. What are the important Amazon Web Services? There are many Cloud Computing services that Amazon offers to its users. Let us have a quick look at those services: Elastic Compute Cloud(EC2): It is a virtual machine in the cloud on which you have an OS-level control. And you can run this cloud server as per the requirement. Light Sail: This is responsible to manage the computer, network, storage required to run the applications. Elastic Beanstalk: It is capable of offering automated deployment and provisioning of resources like a highly scalable production website. Lambda: It is the biggest cost saver to run various kinds of functions in the cloud. Besides, the user here needs to pay only for the functions they use. These are the most common features of Amazon Web Services. Moreover, there are some other services in different categories as follows: a)Database Services: RDS, Dynamo DB, Elastic Cache, Redshift b)Analytics: Athena, Cloud Search, Elastic Search c)Management Services: Cloud Watch, Cloud formation d)Internet of Things(IoT): IoT Core, Device Management, IoT Analytics e)Application Services: Step functions, SNS, SQS f)Deployment and Management: Cloud trail. Cloud Watch g)Developer Tools: Code Star, Code Commit, Code Build h)Artificial Intelligence: Lex, Polly, Sage maker Advantages of AWS: It allows the user to use the already familiar models, operating systems, databases, and architectures It allows users to utilize the services at low cost Does not require to spend money on running and maintaining data centers Offers fast deployments Offers centralized billing and management Offer hybrid capabilities Allows you to deploy your application in multiple regions within a few click Application of Amazon Web Services: Due to its extreme advantages, this cloud computing platform has many advantages across the globe. Let us have a quick look over the application of Amazon Web Services: Web site hosting Application hosting Media hosting Content delivery Storage, back up and disaster delivery Search Engines Social networking Academic Computing and so on. Disadvantages of AWS : To get immediate support, you will have to opt for paid support Have some common cloud computing services when you move to a cloud The default limits of various services vary from region to the region. This resource may contain images, volumes, and snapshots Change in hardware level to your application affects the performance of the applications Nothing in this world is 100% useful. We cannot find the platform with zero disadvantages. Besides these minor disadvantages, Amazon web services is the best cloud computing platform to develop applications across the globe at minimal infrastructure. And this platform suits best for developing tiny to larger applications. I hope, you people have got enough ideas regarding AWS. In the upcoming posts, Ill be sharing the detailed information on each of these services. Get hands-on experience on these services by live industry experts with live use cases at AWS Online Course. Also, have a look at our AWS Interview Questions and get placed in a reputed firmContinue reading
What is Azure?
Do you belong to the lover to the cloud computing platform like Azure? Would you like to know it from the roots? Why it has become a buzzword in the IT industry. Do you have all these points in your mind? Are surfing the internet to get answers to all these questions? Then stop surfing the internet and start reading. This article on Azure is another example to shows you the need for cloud computing and its importance in the IT industry. Even though many cloud providers like Amazon started providing their services the supply amount of these services was not up to the demand. So many vendors were competing with another to provide interactive services. One of those popular competitors is Azure. What is Azure? Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure is a Microsoft public cloud computing environment. This platform provides a wide range of services including compute, storage, networking, and networking. Here the users can pick and scale these services to develop and scale applications (or) run the existing applications in the public cloud. This Azure platform aims to help business challenges and meet their organizational goals. It offers tools that support all industries including e-commerce, finance, and a variety of fortune 500 companies. This platform is compactable with various open-source technologies. This platform is capable of four cloud computing platforms like: a)Infrastructure as a Service(Iaas) b)Platform as a Service(Paas) c)Software as a Service (Saas) and d)Server less Besides, this cloud computing platform is an online portal that allows you to access and manage cloud services provided by Microsoft. These services and resources include storing your data and transforming it depending on your requirements. To access all these services, you need an active internet connection and the ability to access the Azure portal. This platform lets you add cloud capabilities to your existing network. This platform provides secure, reliable access to your cloud-hosted data. This platform has been increasing the array of products and services to meet client requirements. Do you wanna know more about this platform? Then visit Azure Online Training Why do we need Azure? We do require the Azure cloud computing platform due to the following reasons. Application Development: We people can develop any kind of application using this platform. Testing: After the app development, you people can test the application easily. Hosting: Once the development was done, you people can host the application. Virtual Environment Creation: You people can create virtual machines of any environment in this cloud computing platform. Integrate and Sync: This platform lets you integrate and sync virtual devices and directories . Collect and Store metrics: This platform lets you store and collect metrics which helps you to find what works perfectly Virtual hard drives: These were the extensions of virtual machines that provide a huge amount of data storage. What is the use of Microsoft Azure? Microsoft Azure consists of numerous offerings. Running virtual machines (or) containers is one of the most popular uses of Microsoft azure. Moreover, these compute resources, can host multiple infrastructure components such as Domain Name System (DNS) servers, Windows Server services such as Internet Information System (or) third party applications. Besides, it also supports the use of other operating systems like Linux. Moreover, this platform also suits best for backup and disaster discovery. How to use the Azure Server? There is nothing specific requirement to use Azure Services. In order to use the Azure Services, you just need to sign up at the Official Azure website. After, successful signup and logging in you will be logging into the Azure cloud computing platform. Once you enter into this platform, you will be able to get access to the number of services in Azure cloud computing platform for free for 12 months. Some of those services include access to Linux virtual machines, windows virtual machines, File Storage, databases as well as the bandwidth. This cloud platform is useful for the people who want to host services (or) develop the application. Through this cloud computing services, you will able save money by letting the Microsoft platform to handle the infrastructure. What is the application of this Cloud computing Services? Microsoft cloud computing platform is a fast, flexible, and affordable platform. Many IT Professional suggests that this platform suits best among the other public cloud offerings in the market. Now let us have a look where this cloud computing platform is useful. Backup and Disaster Recovery: This cloud computing platform suits best for backup and the disaster recovery platform. This platform is flexible to backup your data in any language, OS as well as the location. Besides you, people can also define the frequency and the extent of your backup schedule. Tap backup the data, this platform usually has time and space, but has limited abilities as a stand-alone backup and disaster recovery solution. Since the vendor stores three copies of data in three different locations of the data center and another three copies of data in a remote data center there is no point for loss of data. Host and Develop mobile and Desktop Apps: If you are looking for a platform to host, develop and manage the web (or) mobile apps, azure makes those apps autonomous and adaptive with patch management, Auto scale, and the integration for on-premises applications. Moreover, with automatic patch management for virtual machines, you can spend less time managing the infrastructure and focus on improving your apps. Since this platform comes with continuous deployment support this allows you to streamline the on-going code updates. Distribute and supplement Active directory: This platform Is capable of integrating the active directory to supplement your identity and access capabilities. This includes global reach, centralized management, and robust security. Hence through this cloud computing platform, you can globally distribute an active directory environment where the direct connect is enabled. No other cloud provider can extend the reach of your domain controller and consolidate the AD management. For an instance, if you have multiple locations (or) use of on-premises apps like Microsoft 365. Active directory integration with Azure will be a central tool for managing and maintaining access to all of these tools Innovate with IoT Solutions: The Scalability, flexibility, and the security of the Azure platform makes the perfect resources for the companies moving towards IoT Solutions. Moreover, you can connect your devices to the cloud using solutions using solutions that can integrate your existing infrastructure and start collecting the new data about your company. Moreover, through Azure IOT hub you can monitor and manage billions of devices and gain insights. This helps us to make better decisions improves customer experiences, reduce complexity, lowers the cost, and speed up the development. Likewise, there are many other applications of the Azure Cloud platform which were in use by IT people across the globe. And you people can get practical exposure to this platform by live experts with practical use cases at Azure Online Course. Final Words: By reaching the end of this blog, I hope you people have got enough ideas on Azure regarding its need, application in the IT industry. In the upcoming posts of this, ill be sharing the details of various services of this platform and its application with practical use cases.Continue reading
What is DevOps?
DevOps is the most powerful as well as the most popular platform that is being used by many companies in today's world. This DevOps culture is being used by many organizations in the IT World today. Hence today, in this article, let us have an overview of DevOps Before knowing the overview of DevOps, let us walk through its neeed. Need for DevOps: Before the arrival of DevOps principles companies used to adopt various software development models like the Waterfall model. Waterfall Software development is a sequential model. Hence if one phase in the model fails, the process needs to start from the beginning. Hence we can say this as a repetitive process. Moreover, it increases the time complexity of software development. Hence to overcome these kinds of problems, we need an agile approach. Then at this movement, DevOps principles came into existence. What is DevOps? Many newbies argue that DevOps is a tool. Some others say that it is a framework and a few others say it is a cloud computing platform, if you belong to the same, then you are misunderstood. This is because it does not belong to any of these. DevOps is a combination of two words like Development and Operations. It belongs to the set of principles that is responsible for increasing the agility of Development as well as the operations teams. These principles were designed to increase the collaboration of Development as well as the operations teams. These principles were designed to overcome the problem of the traditional software model. Moreover, these principles were designed to increase the efficiency of software development with fewer life cycles. Moreover, these principles accelerate the process of developing software applications and software services at high speed and high velocity. So many organizations adopt these principles as early as possible. Moreover, by applying these principles we can detect the bugs at the early stage and also minimize the risk factor of the application. Kits DevOps Online Training trainers let you know the early detection of application bugs with live use cases Where did DevOps Come from? It is an off-spring of agile development. This was born to increase the velocity of the project and the throughput agile methods have achieved. The need for agile development shows the ways to the origin of these principles . What is the goal of DevOps? The main goal of these principles is to improve the collaboration between the stakeholders from planning to delivery through the delivery of the automation process to achieve the following goals. They are to: a)Improve the deployment frequency b)Achieve faster time to market c)Lower failure of new releases d)shorten the lead time between fixes e)Improve the meantime to recovery What are the advantages of the DevOps approach? Every decision in the organization is the key factor in the organization's growth. As mentioned above, today most organization adopt this approach due to the following reasons: Smart Collaboration: This is the base of DevOps approach. And it also considered as the biggest benefit of the many application. Moreover, well-established communication between the team members saves a lot of time. Besides, this smooth collaboration reduces a lot of frazzled nerves and also reduces the waiting time. Moreover, it also reduces the bus factor. Scalability: DevOps principles were applied from the beginning to the project to scale the project as much as possible. Moreover, the principles were designed in such a way that it takes less time to scale the project environment. Flexibility: Many developers today say that it is the most important factor that many people today adopt this principle. All the products built using the these principles consist of small, independent modules where the developers can easily replace, change the components whenever required. Moreover, DevOps agility can be easily configured at any moment Reliability: Since the projects were very huge, maintaining the backup of the application is essential for the smooth running of the project. So these principles do have the capability of maintaining the last working copy. Hence in the case of event disaster, we can instantly set up the recovery (or) the rollback process. This makes the application availability with zero downtime Speed : As mentioned above, all the above principles were designed in such a way these principles were capable of exposing all the above-mentioned features at great speed within a short period. Moreover, the need for the these principles increases w.r.t the project complexity Hence likewise, many advantages of utilizing the these principles in the market today. Besides many tools like docker, chef, puppet, ansible work on the these principles. And Companies were paying the best salaries to the DevOps AWS professionals. Hence get certified by live experts training at DevOps Online Course I hope you people have gained enough knowledge DevOps definition. In the upcoming, Ill be sharing the knowledge on the life Cycle, tools, methodologies, principles, and so on. Follow this blog to acquire the best knowledge of various IT platformsContinue reading
What is Google Cloud Platform?
It seems difficult to sustain life in the IT industry without using the most common search engine like Google. This vendor is not only limited its services to the search engine but also has its roots in the area of cloud computing. Many IT companies today were utilizing this cloud computing for the smooth running of the business. According to recent statistics, 49% of IT professionals use the Google Cloud platform as the primary resource of computation. And the next followers were Microsoft Azure and Amazon web services with 48 % and 42 % of IT Professionals respectively. So with this, we can say Google Cloud platform stood at the top of cloud computing services. Hence, a question comes to your mind, “Even though Amazon, Azure, and other cloud computing services perform the same, why this cloud computing platform stood top?” If “YES”, continue your reading with Why do we need Cloud Computing? People prefer to utilize cloud computing services to scale the resources as per the demand at an affordable price. Moreover, we people opt for these cloud services to reduce infrastructure services. These kinds of services suit best for starters. The specialty of the cloud computing platform is, it provides a space for individuals as well as the enterprises to build and run the software. Google is one of the topmost vendors in providing cloud computing services. Hence without wasting much time, let us have a quick discussion on What is Google Cloud Computing? Google Cloud Platform is a suite of google public cloud computing services. This platform includes a range of hosted services for compute, storage, application development that runs on the Google hardware. Besides, these services can be easily accessed by software developers, cloud administrators, and other IT Professionals through a public (or) a dedicated Internet connection. This vendor provides excellent services to the people through the pay-as-you-go model. Besides this cloud computing platform makes use of internet remote servers to store, manage as well as process the data instead of local server (or) the personal computer. Know more on GCP by live experts with practical use cases at Google Cloud Online Training Where do we can find this service? Google has its data centers at several places across the globe. Some of them were North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Furthermore, these locations were further divided into regions and zones. These were the data center locations as of today. And this vendor is in a process of establishing the data centers in some more locations across the globe. Hence with this, the user can select the nearest region to get the unstoppable service with high availability of the service. Whenever you launch an application (or) service, on the google cloud platform, google keeps track of all the resource utilization. For instance, it records the processing power, data storage, database queries, and the network connectivity it consumes. Besides, one more advantage of this platform, when compared with its competitors, is, it allows the users to pay per second basis (competitors charges per minute basis) with additional offers. What are the various services of this GCP? As mentioned above, this platform has wide variety of services in its platform. Hence this platform has divided its services into several categories. Some of them were : Computing: GCP provides wide range of computing options to satisfy the user requirement. Besides, it provides highly customizable virtual machines to deploy the code directly (or) through the virtual machines (VM’s). Some of the popular Google computing services are: 1.Compute Engine 2.App Engine 3.Kubernetes Engine 4.Container Registry 5.Cloud function and so on Networking: This platform contains services related to networking. Some of the popular services were : 1.Google Virtual Private Cloud 2.Google Cloud load balancing 3.Google Cloud Interconnect Big Data: Besides, it also provides the best services related to big data as follows : 1.Google Big Query 2.Google Cloud Data Proc 3.Google Cloud Data Lab 4.Google Cloud Pub/Sub Developer Tools: This platform provides the following services related to development. They are: Cloud SDK Deployment manager Cloud Source Repositories Cloud Test Lab Management Tools: This platform also provides services related to monitoring and management as follows: Stack driver Monitoring Logging Error reporting Trace Cloud Console Besdies it also provides various services related to security, Cloud AI and many more. Who is the Top user of this cloud computing platform? Many people were utilizing this cloud computing service. Some of them were Twitter: A popular social media platform that lets you share your view (or) the information. When people were tweeting more and more, the bulk amount of data gets generated. Hence this social media platform uses this cloud computing platform for storing as well as the computation purpose. Paypal: This platform use google cloud to increase security, build a faster network, and develop services to its customers. eBay: It utilizes the google services to innovate the image search, improve the customer experiences, train the transition models. HSBC: By the utilization of these services, this platform able to bring a new level of security, compliance as well as governance to its banks. What are the advantage of this platform? This platform has multiple advantages. Some of them were : Good Documentation: This cloud computing platform has good documentation for every service that easier for the newbie to make the utilization of the service Multiple Storage Classes: This platform contains multiple classes according to the Regional(frequent), Nearline ( infrequent), and the cold line use (Long-term) High Availability: This platform is pretty sure that data is safe even in the situation of the simultaneous loss of two disks. Multi-Region Availability: As mentioned above, Google has multiple data centers across the globe, the user has an option of selecting the nearest region to enjoy the uninterrupted service Hence likewise, there are many other advantages of this cloud computing service. Moreover, these people were adding more and more features as per the market need. You people can get practical exposure to these services when you enroll for the Google Cloud Online Course. By reaching the end of this blog, I hope you people have acquired enough idea regarding the need and utilization of these services. In the upcoming articles of this blog, I'll be sharing the details of creating an account in GCP and the utilization of each service in detail.Continue reading
What is MuleSoft?
Mule is one of the popular Enterprise Service Bus (ESB). This is a software integration platform responsible to connect data, devices, and applications on many cloud computing platforms. This is completely a java based platform and is capable of connecting other platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Linkedin. This Mulesoft works on a run time engine called Anypoint. History of Mulesoft: Mulesoft is from San Fransisco established by Ross Mason in the year 2006. The name mulesoft indicates that this tool eliminates the mule work. As of 2018, July, this 1200 + Clients. In the year 2018, Salesforce acquired mulesoft. What does Mulesoft do? It allows developers to interact and communicate with any application in a very versatile manner regardless of the framework it is used. It builds an active communication channel for sending and exchanging the data over a secure and reliable platform between the integrated applications. This platform contains tools to update and handle the test application. Mule is lightweight and highly scalable allows you to connect small connections over time. This Mule ESB is responsible for managing all the interactions between the applications and components. It manages the network regardless of the operating system. This integration platform has a variety of data sources as well as the applications to perform analytics as well as the ETL Processes. Likewise, MuleSoft has created connectors for Saas Application to permit the analysis of Saas related to cloud-based and conventional data sources. What does the Mulesoft Any Point platform do? The MuleSoft Any point platform is designed over the enterprise service bus(ESB) and mule driven architecture. This Enterprise platform is capable of creating a network of data, applications, and devices through API. This platform has expanded the view of integrations and provides the flexibility to integrate new technologies on each integration without custom coding.This mulesoft anypoint platform runs on mule run time engine. Besides it supports a variety of pre –built connectors for comman databases, applications, protocals and API’s. Mulesoft Architecture follows the data integration trends of creating building blocks of connectors, API’s and data flows that simplifies the data integration. Businesses can connect third-party applications, SaaS offerings, data storage, cloud storage, and other in-house data sources to analyze and mine the data across the company. This Mulesoft Any Point provides a developer kit to create custom connectors. Besides, Mulesoft can also be used with the studio data flow, graphical interface, and the API Designer kits as per the need. Besides, mulesoft develops the data weave to simplify the data analysis, transformations, queries, and normalization. Since the data weave is integrated with the rest of the mule soft any point platform pre-built templates can be used for complex analysis. Get more information on Mule from real-time industry expert at MuleSoft Online Training What are the components of MuleSoft? Mulesoft platform has several tools and services. Some of them were: a)API Designer: It is a web-based graphical tool that the developer can use to design the API, as well as can share it with other team members. A developer can also choose to reuse the specific components of an API, such as the security schema. b)API Manager: It is an interface through which the developer can manage the API’s as well as secure them through API Gateway. With this component of the Any Point platform, it is possible to control user access to the API’s and ensure secure connections to the end data sources. c)Any Point Studio: It is a java-based graphical environment that the developer can use to deploy on-premises and cloud environments. It includes the features to map, built, edit and debug the data integrations d)Any Point Connectors: These are the set of built-in connectors, that the developer can use to integrate applications with thousands of third-party REST and SOAP. e)Any Point Analytics: It is an analytics tool to track API metrics such as performance and usage. A developer can use these tools to create custom charts and dashboards to visualize the API performance. Moreover, this platform is capable of identifying the root cause of performance issues. f)Any Point Run Time Manager: It is a central console through which a developer can provision and monitor all the resources deployed on the Any Point platform g)Any Point Exchange: This is the central hub. The development team uses this to store and access the connectors, API’s, temaplates, documentation and other resources. i)Any point Monitoring: It is a dashboard that helps the development team to monitor the application health. j)Any Point Visualizer: It is a graphical tool to map the API and its dependencies in real-time. How to implement Mule ESB? The purpose of Mule ESB is to separate and activate applications to communicate in a highly scalable and fast network bus.This platform uses the messaging server such as AMQP and JMS that allows the bus connectivity through application separation. Moreover, Mule servers were the only capable of bus implementation. What are the advantages of Mulesoft? a)Mule components can be of any type you require. You can easily integrate anything from a plain Object-Oriented (Pojo) to a component from another framework. b) Mule and ESB enable the significant component reuse. It allows you to use your existing components without changes. Moreover, here the components do not require any mule-specific code to run. Here the business logic is completely separate from the message logic. c)Here the messages can be in any format from SOAP to binary image files. Mule does not force any architect constraints such as XML messaging (or) WSDL Service contracts. d) You can deploy mule in a variety of topologies not only ESB. Because the mule is lightweight, it will dramatically and increase productivity to provide secure and scalable applications that are adaptive to change and scale up (or) scale down the applications. Likewise, there are many advantages of Mule ESB. I hope by this you people have gotten the best knowledge on Mule. You people can acquire more practical knowledge on this tool from the roots at Mule Soft Online Course . In the upcoming post of this blog, Ill be sharing the details connections of mule ESB. Mean while have a look at our Mule ESB Interview Questions.Continue reading
What is Salesforce?
Salesforce is a cloud computing software as a service that specializes in customer relationship management(CRM). Before going to know about salesforce in detail, let us have a look regarding the need for this platform. Before the arrival of Salesforce CRM, companies use to maintain their cloud computing environment. At that time, people usually took months, in some cases they took years to build the cloud computing environment. And in some cases, the demand for the feature may also go down when the feature comes live in the cloud computing environment. Hence to overcome these kinds of situations, they require a cloud computing environment as a one-stop solution for all the organization's needs. At this moment, salesforce came into the picture as a cloud-based CRM. In the above paragraphs, we have been discussing that salesforce is a CRM. So What is CRM? CRM Stands for Customer Relationship Management. This CRM is a technology that is responsible for managing the company's relationships and the interactions with the customers. This CRM helps companies to stay connected with the customers, streamline the processes, and increase business profitability. In simple words, this CRM is a better way to manage the external interactions and relationships to success. What does Salesforce do? This cloud-based CRM serves all the required software to the people online. Hence people consider this salesforce as a Software as a Service(Saas) model. Moreover, this SaaS model takes care of software installation, maintenance, version updates, and so on. Moreover, it also takes care of the necessary software to be installed, infrastructure set up, and so on. And we can use this software as a pay per use model. Hence you can enjoy the necessary software services at a low cost and with the minimum infrastructure. Moreover, you people can enjoy all the salesforce cloud services with a subscription of $50 per month Salesforce has essentially changed the way software enterprise delivery and usage. This CRM has shown the ideal way to connect with the customers. We this cloud platform, we can build a meaningful and lasting bond with the customers. Identifying needs, addressing problems, apps deployment, and so on. This CRM platform has listed both in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and also in S &P 500 index. Initially, in the year 2004, its IPO raised about $110 million in funding. And in today's markets, it's worth about $77 billion. Moreover, according to recent trends, its revenue reached $17.1 billion. And as of April 2020, this CRM has 150000 customers from small business to fortune 500+ companies. So with the stats, we can say that salesforce stands as a pioneer in the IT Market. Get more utilization of this cloud CRM from live experts through online Salesforce Online Training Who uses Salesforce? As mentioned above, many companies from small scale to fortune 500+ were using salesforce. Some of them were Google, Facebook, Twitter, and so on. As shown in the below diagram, you can understand the power of salesforce in the tech world. All these people were using this CRM to solve their problems. And this cloud platform provides various software solutions and platforms to both users as well as developers to develop and distribute the custom infrastructure. This CRM is a multi-tenant architecture. which means that multiple users can share the common technology and share the common release. Since the CRM takes of all the necessary infrastructure, you people can concentrate more on innovation rather than the infrastructure management What are the services that the salesforce offer? To get a better understanding of salesforce, you need to know about its products and services that the salesforce offers to its products. Because, with this CRM, you can access a wide range of products and services in the cloud, social as well as the mobile domains. They are as follows: Sales Cloud: As a CRM platform, this sales cloud, enables you to manage the sales, marketing, and customer support facets. And this sales cloud suits best for both B2B and B2C sales needs. Marketing Cloud: This marketing cloud is one of the most powerful digital platforms. This cloud helps the marketers in your organization to manage the customer journey. This includes the customer journey, email, mobile social media, web personalization, content management, and data analytics Service Cloud: It is a service platform for your organization's customer service and the support team. It provides various features like case tracking, social networking plugin for conversation, and analytics. This cloud, not only helps agents to solve your customer faster but also provides customer access. Community Cloud: This community cloud is responsible for establishing the connection between your employees, partners, and customers and facilitate communication. Moreover, using Salesforce cloud platform you can exchange data and image in real-time Commerce Cloud: This commerce cloud enables your organization to provide a seamless service and experience irrespective of your location. Besides, it also provides customer data integration to provide a better experience. Analytics Cloud: As the name indicates this analytics platform provides the business intelligence platform to work with large files, create graphs, charts, and other pictorial representations of the data. Moreover, this cloud platform is optimized for mobile access. Besides data visualization can be easily integrated with other salesforce tools App Cloud: This application cloud helps you to develop custom applications and run on the Salesforce platform. Besides, it provides a set of development tools that can utilize to develop custom applications. Some of them were Force.com, app exchange, Heroku, thunder, sandbox, and so on. Health Cloud: This health cloud suits best for doctors. Through this cloud, doctors can log the patient's health at regular intervals. Hence with this profile, we can establish the one-one by integrating the data from multiple sources. Hence likewise, there are many services that the cloud CRM provides to the people. You people can get hands-on experience on these services from live experts online at Salesforce Online Course. I hope you have got an enough ideas on salesforce. You cawhat in get more when you enroll at the kits Salesforce Certification Course Also, check out Salesforce Interview Questions with answers and get placed in your repeated company.Continue reading
What is VM Ware?
VM Ware is a cloud computing virtualization software. It was initially founded in 1988 and brought a revolution to the IT industry through its virtualization as well as cloud solutions. Today this company has 75000+ partners across the globe. This VM Ware suits best in various areas like banking, health care, retail as well as telecommunications. In this article, I'll let you know the complete details of VM Ware. What is VM Ware? In the Software industry, it is one of the key providers of virtualization. It stands to be the first commercially successful company to virtualize x86 architecture. And they were categorized into two levels namely desktop as well as server applications. VM Ware desktop software is compactable with major operating systems like Linux, Windows as well as the Mac Os. This VMWare Workstation enables multiple copies of the same operating systems (or) the several different operating systems that can run simultaneously on an x86 machine. It supports multiple operating systems that run on Windows (or) a Linux PC. Besides, it has a user’s desktop that can be stored on a USB drive for transport. It is the process of creating software based on the virtual representation that includes servers, storage, and other different networks. VMWare Vsphere is a server virtualization platform. This platform is responsible for implementing and managing the infrastructure on a large scale. This VM Ware VSphere is also referred to as a cloud operating system (or) a virtualized data center platform. It enables the IT departments to place application workloads on the most cost-effective computing resources. Here the virtualization is managed by the program called Hypervisor. A hypervisor is software that helps in creating and running virtual machines. Would you like to know the practical working of VM Ware? Then visit VM Ware Online Training These were classified into two types namely: Type -1 native (or) bare metal Hypervisors: It provides direct interaction to the hardware and it can run directly on the hosted hardware and control it. Hosted Hypervisors: In this type, the operating system will interact with the hardware. Here the hypervisor is installed along with the operating system. VM Ware vCloud: The VMWare VCloud Suite is a software-defined data center based on Vsphere cloud implementation. It has evolved from Vsphere due to the changing demands of IT managed service providers. Besides, it is capable of offering data center virtualization, high availability, and resilient infrastructure. Here the VM Ware vCloud includes various features. It uses Vsphere for computing and VReliaze automation for the policy defined computing automation. Typical VCloud Cloud management consists of 2 sites. Here each site is connected by the dark fiber and each has multiple hosts and a replicated storage. It has a high availability disaster recovery solution that has replication between sites. Here the SRM will use the predefined policies to failover servers as well as the services from site A to site B. This automated process enables managed service providers to offer a 99.99% uptime capability. VM Ware Cloud Management Services: The VM Ware cloud is an offering from VMWare for cloud-based infrastructure services. It is heavily integrated with Amazon Web Services(AWS) and offers a cloud-based service for many popular VM Ware applications. This eliminates the requirement for the data center services and the cost associated with that. Moreover, it enables many individuals as well as companies to leverage VMWare products for personal use. To virtualize the most hardware-based data center products into its products, this platform has introduced the VM Ware Hyper Converged Infrastrucutre(HCI): VMWare offering two products aimed at virtualizing the storage and network fabrics of the data center. Here the data center consists of several EXSI hosts, Various storage devices (SAN), SAN Switches, and a network infrastructure layer. Here the VMware VSAN and VMWare NSX provide a storage virtualization layer and a network virtualization layer. What is VM Ware Private Cloud? VM Ware private Cloud is a service through which you can connect two (or) more physical servers to one. Here all the resources from physical servers (or) the nodes are joined together into the pool of sources, that can be distributed across virtual machines that deploy the nodes. And these private clouds were classifieds into the following types: a)Virtual Private Cloud: It is a remotely hosted private cloud instance located within a public cloud. This type of private cloud is different from the others. Because it exists in a separate area of cloud instead of being hosted on-premises b)Hosted Private Cloud: It is a type of cloud-hosted by the cloud service provider on-premises like a data-center. This type of cloud is not shared with other organizations. The cloud service provider is one who manages the network and takes care of the hardware that is behind the cloud. Here the software updates are taken by the cloud provider. c)Managed Private Cloud: It is a type of private cloud that is responsible for hardware, software, networking, and day-to-day operations of the private cloud. How to work with VM Ware? Working with VM Ware is easy if you follow the following steps. Initially, you need to install the VM Ware Work Station and then install the Operating System. Here, you can name your virtual machine and then set the disk size. Once you did this you can customize the virtual machine virtual hardware. And then you can start the virtual machine. Once the installation is done you can start using the VM Ware. Here you can easily move the files between the virtual machine and the physical machine. Here you can add external devices like printers by adding their names. With VMWare Server Virtualization, a hypervisor is installed on the physical server to allow multiple virtual machines to run on the same virtual machine. Here each VM runs its operating system which indicates multiples OS’s can run on one physical server. All the VM’s on the same physical server can share resources such as RAM and networking. What are the advantages of VM Ware? The advantages of VM ware are mentioned below: Users can run all kinds of applications (both new as well as old) on it. If the data is infected with the virus you can access it using VM ware Here the browsing of VM Ware is completely safe You can run Linux on top of windows very easily The utilization of old hardware here is very easy. Likewise, there are many advantages to VM Ware. By reaching the end of this article, I hope you people have got enough knowledge of VM Ware. You can get the practical advantages of VM ware and its utilization in different tools taught by industry professionals at VM Ware Online Course. In the upcoming post of this blog, I'll be sharing the details of the application of VM Ware on different tools in the real world. Meanwhile, have a glance at our VM Ware Interview QuestionsContinue reading
What is Workday?
Workday is a cloud-based vendor that specialized in Financial Management and human capital management applications. This vendor releases its first product in 2006. The first product is known as Human Capital Management. In the next years, it releases various products like Financial suite, Financial management. This workday HCM has worked over years, to make the financial software more competitive with other ERP systems by adding various features like budgeting, planning, analytics as well as support for larger enterprises. In the year 2013, Worday added big data analytics, prepackaged analytics tools which combine workday from third party resources. In addition at the same time, this plaform also releaed workday student. Its custom reporting tool released in 2014, provided multidimensional financial, operational reporting, and analysis designed to be scalable for large enterprises. In the same year, this vendor has released workday recruiting. Workday applications that launched in 2016, allow the workday users to apply predictive analysis and machine learning to workday HCM and financial data.. This workday forecasting, budgeting and planning helps to unify the HR Finanacial analytics and planning according to the vendor. In the same year, it adopted the IBM cloud for software development and testing. At the same time, it also reveals its partnership with Microsoft to integrate HCM and financials with office 365. Workday uses to seat on a single cloud-based database to both HCM and financials to provide better integration and embedded business functions than the ERP System. Time being it added other components of HCM, talent management, and finance to its suite. Moreover, it released the versions for specialized markets such as higher educations as well as the government. What is Human Capital Management (HCM)? Human Capital Management is responsible for managing the crucial properties of an organization. i.e its people.This HCM platform contains all the activities from hiring an employee to retaining them. Human Capital Management is responsible for managing all the HR activities like Financial management, Human Capital Management, performance management, planning, etc. This platform suits best for almost all kinds of business, especially for companies that have multiple locations. This platform is a one-stop solution for onboarding, recruiting, benefits, time off and analytics, compensation benchmarking, etc. This platform is user-friendly, global system software that offers the latest version to the customers both on the browser as well as the mobile. Would you like to know more feature on HCM? Visit Workday Online Course Features and Services of the workday : This workday has the following features and services as mentioned below: Human Resource Management (HRM): HRM allows companies to manage and organize their workforce effectively. Besdies the self-service functionality for managers and employees and managers, it also includes various additional features like compensation management and absence management. Recruiting: This platform recruiting solution helps organizations to find, share, engage and select the best internal and external candidates for the organization. This platform is responsible for acquire true visibility through the entire talent acquisition process and can get the best talent. Talent Management : It is the practice of searching, keeping as well as training the employees, who were best suitable and meeting the requirments as well as the goals of the company. The main objective of this talent management, is to recruit the top affordable employees where the company can achieve the maximum potential growth for the success. Time Tracking: This feature was designed to work flawlessly with Human Capital Management, payroll as well as the work management to deliver the smooth experience through the internet as well as the mobile devices. Through this feature, it is easy for the employees to enter the time check-in (or) check out quickly on any browsers (or) a mobile devices. Workforce planning and Analytics: This feature provides an authority to the business leaders to take the better and informed decisions regarding the business crucial issues. With this feature, it is possible to analyze the capability, cost as well as the ability of the people where the resouces can be enhanced and the correct planning could be developed to achieve the organization business objective. Payroll Solution: This is a flexible feature that allows you take the complete control of the payroll process, data as well as the costs. This platform provide payroll software for enterprise requirements for the US as well as the Candian Companies. Besides, it also provides a powerful calculation engine that supports unlimited pay groups where the companies can regain and act on the payroll data isntanttly when ever required. Learning and Development: With working learning and development feature, it is possible to engage the employees at any phase of the career through learning experiences, that can be acceses on any device. With this feature the employee can manage all the aspects of learning including the information as well as the compliance training. Advantages: The utilization of Workday platform has the following advantages: a)This platform enables 24*7 access to the information over the secure network. b)This platform provides an easy to use access for the routine personnel items and also to make the personal information updates. c) Worday platform allocates executives, managers and administrators ready access to the current information about their teams d) This platform simplifies and automates the entry of the academic personnel to ensure correct track and the rank were entered in the system. e) Workday platform eliminates the need to build and maintain side and departmental shadow systems f) This platform is capable of introducing new HR and the payroll features and capabilities through Workday periodical updates g) This platform is capable on working on PC’s and Mac’s h) This platform has been successfully implemented / being implemted in many places like College, Universities etc. Likewise, there are many features of workday for many organization today. In the upcoming post of the blog, Ill be sharing the details of each feature with examples in real world industry.You can acquire the practical knowledge on workday feature from ground to the advanced level through Workday Online Training. Through this course, you will be acquiring real-time knowledge on workday .Continue reading
AWS Interview Questions
Q1. Explain Elastic Block Storage? What type of performance can you expect? How do you back it up? How do you improve performance? EBS is a virtualized SAN or storage area network. That means it is RAID storage to start with so it's redundant and fault tolerant. If disks die in that RAID you don't lose data. Great! It is also virtualized, so you can provision and allocate storage, and attach it to your server with various API calls. No calling the storage expert and asking him or her to run specialized commands from the hardware vendor. Performance on EBS can exhibit variability. That is it can go above the SLA performance level, then drop below it. The SLA provides you with an average disk I/O rate you can expect. This can frustrate some folks especially performance experts who expect reliable and consistent disk throughput on a server. Traditional physically hosted servers behave that way. Virtual AWS instances do not. Backup EBS volumes by using the snapshot facility via API call or via a GUI interface like elasticfox. Improve performance by using Linux software raid and striping across four volumes. Q2. What is S3? What is it used for? Should encryption be used? S3 stands for Simple Storage Service. You can think of it like ftp storage, where you can move files to and from there, but not mount it like a filesystem. AWS automatically puts your snapshots there, as well as AMIs there. Encryption should be considered for sensitive data, as S3 is a proprietary technology developed by Amazon themselves, and as yet unproven vis-a-vis a security standpoint Q3. What is an AMI? How do I build one? AMI stands for Amazon Machine Image. It is effectively a snapshot of the root filesystem. Commodity hardware servers have a bios that points the the master boot record of the first block on a disk. A disk image though can sit anywhere physically on a disk, so Linux can boot from an arbitrary location on the EBS storage network. Build a new AMI by first spinning up and instance from a trusted AMI. Then adding packages and components as required. Be wary of putting sensitive data onto an AMI. For instance your access credentials should be added to an instance after spinup. With a database, mount an outside volume that holds your MySQL data after spinup as well. Q4. Can I vertically scale an Amazon instance? How? Yes. This is an incredible feature of AWS and cloud virtualization. Spinup a new larger instance than the one you are currently running. Pause that instance and detach the root ebs volume from this server and discard. Then stop your live instance, detach its root volume. Note the unique device ID and attach that root volume to your new server. And the start it again. Voila you have scaled vertically in-place!! Q5. What is auto-scaling? How does it work? Autoscaling is a feature of AWS which allows you to configure and automatically provision and spinup new instances without the need for your intervention. You do this by setting thresholds and metrics to monitor. When those thresholds are crossed a new instance of your choosing will be spun up, configured, and rolled into the load balancer pool. Voila you've scaled horizontally without any operator intervention! Q6. What automation tools can I use to spinup servers? The most obvious way is to roll-your-own scripts, and use the AWS API tools. Such scripts could be written in bash, perl or other language or your choice. Next option is to use a configuration management and provisioning tool like puppet or better it's successor Opscode Chef. You might also look towards a tool like Scalr. Lastly you can go with a managed solution such as Rightscale. Q7. What is configuration management? Why would I want to use it with cloud provisioning of resources? Configuration management has been around for a long time in web operations and systems administration. Yet the cultural popularity of it has been limited. Most systems administrators configure machines as software was developed before version control - that is manually making changes on servers. Each server can then and usually is slightly different. Troubleshooting though is straightforward as you login to the box and operate on it directly. Configuration management brings a large automation tool into the picture, managing servers like strings of a puppet. This forces standardization, best practices, and reproducibility as all configs are versioned and managed. It also introduces a new way of working which is the biggest hurdle to its adoption. Enter the cloud, and configuration management becomes even more critical. That's because virtual servers such as amazons EC2 instances are much less reliable than physical ones. You absolutely need a mechanism to rebuild them as-is at any moment. This pushes best practices like automation, reproducibility and disaster recovery into center stage. Q8. Explain how you would simulate perimeter security using Amazon Web Services model? Traditional perimeter security that we're already familiar with using firewalls and so forth is not supported in the Amazon EC2 world. AWS supports security groups. One can create a security group for a jump box with ssh access - only port 22 open. From there a webserver group and database group are created. The webserver group allows 80 and 443 from the world, but port 22 *only* from the jump box group. Further the database group allows port 3306 from the webserver group and port 22 from the jump box group. Add any machines to the webserver group and they can all hit the database. No one from the world can, and no one can directly ssh to any of your boxes. Q9. Types of the cloud? Public Cloud Private Cloud Hybrid Cloud Q10. Explain What is AWS? Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a secure cloud services platform, offering computing power, database storage, content delivery and other functionality to help businesses scale and grow. Explore how millions of customers are currently leveraging AWS cloud products and solutions to build sophisticated applications with increased flexibility, scalability and reliability. Q11. AWS provides which cloud? AWS basically provide Public Cloud. But it provides a feature to set up Private Cloud and Hybrid Cloud also. Q12. Explain key components of AWS? Route 53 Simple E-mail Service IAM S3 EC2 EBS CloudWatch Q13. Benefits of AWS cloud? Easy to use Flexible Cost-Effective Pay Per Use Reliable Elastic and Scalable Secure Q14. What are service models AWS provide? AWS provides a service model IAAS PAAS SAAS Q15. What is VPC? Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) enables you to launch AWS resources into a virtual network that you've defined. This virtual network closely resembles a traditional network that you'd operate in your own data center, with the benefits of using the scalable infrastructure of AWS. Q16. What is internet gateway? An Internet gateway is a horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available VPC component that allows communication between instances in your VPC and the Internet. It, therefore, imposes no availability risks or bandwidth constraints on your network traffic. An Internet gateway serves two purposes: to provide a target in your VPC route tables for Internet-routable traffic and to perform network address translation (NAT) for instances that have been assigned public IPv4 addresses. An Internet gateway supports IPv4 and IPv6 traffic. Q17. What tools you can use for migration to AWS? Direct Connect SnowBall Q18. What is the storage options available in AWS? EBS S3 Glacier Q19. What is S3? Can you store static websites in AWS? Amazon Simple Storage Service is storage for the Internet. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers. Amazon S3 has a simple web services interface that you can use to store and retrieve any amount of data, at any time, from anywhere on the web. Yes, we can store a static website in S3. Q20. How much large object you can store in S3? Amazon S3 objects can range in size from a minimum of 0 bytes to a maximum of 5 TB. Q21. What is RRS in S3? Reduced Redundancy Storage (RRS) is an Amazon S3 storage option that enables customers to store noncritical, reproducible data at lower levels of redundancy than Amazon S3’s standard storage. It provides a highly available solution for distributing or sharing content that is durably stored elsewhere, or for storing thumbnails, transcoded media, or other processed data that can be easily reproduced. The RRS option stores object on multiple devices across multiple facilities, providing 400 times the durability of a typical disk drive, but does not replicate objects as many times as standard Amazon S3 storage. Q22. What is IAM? How it works? AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) enables you to manage access to AWS services and resources securely. Using IAM, you can create and manage AWS users and groups, and use permissions to allow and deny their access to AWS resources. Q23. What is AWS KMS system? AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) is a managed service that makes it easy for you to create and control the encryption keys used to encrypt your data. Enable and disable master keys. Set and retrieve master key usage policies (access control) Q24. What is hosted zone in Route53 A hosted zone is analogous to a traditional DNS zone file; it represents a collection of records that can be managed together, belonging to a single parent domain name. All resource record sets within a hosted zone must have the hosted zone’s domain name as a suffix. Q25. How you can setup primary, secondary failover in route53? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/Route53/latest/DeveloperGuide/dns-failover-configuring.html Q26. How you can setup weighted policy in route53? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/Route53/latest/DeveloperGuide/routing-policy.html Q27. Explain the functionality of AMI? how it works? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/AMIs.html Q28. What is the relation between AMI and Instance? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/ec2-instances-and-amis.html Q29. What are backup strategies available in AWS? AMI Snapshots EBS snapshots Q30. How you can take backup of instances? Manual EC2 Instance Backup by an EBS Snapshot Manual Backup Using AMI Automating the EC2 Backup using CLI Automating Instance Backup Using CPM Q31. What is EC2? Can you launch an instance in your dedicated network? Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) is a web service that provides secure, resizable compute capacity in the cloud. It is designed to make web-scale cloud computing easier for developers. Yes, we can launch an instance in our dedicated network in aws. Q32. Explain T2 and C4 instances? https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/instance-types/ Q33. How to setup EC2 for ping response? Allow Inbound ICMP protocol in Security Group. https://www.serverkaka.com/2018/03/ping-aws-ec2-instance.html Q34. What is Security Group in AWS? A security group acts as a virtual firewall that controls the traffic for one or more instances. When you launch an instance, you associate one or more security groups with the instance. You add rules to each security group that allows traffic to or from its associated instances. Q35. What is dynamo DB? how it differs from RDS? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/amazondynamodb/latest/developerguide/Introduction.html Q36. What is an elastic cache? Amazon ElastiCache is a web service that makes it easy to deploy, operate, and scale an in-memory data store or cache in the cloud. ElastiCache for Redis is fully managed, scalable, and secure - making it an ideal candidate to power high-performance use cases such as Web, Mobile Apps, Gaming, Ad-Tech, and IoT. Q37. Explain CloudFront and it functions? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonCloudFront/latest/DeveloperGuide/Introduction.html Q38. Explain Regions and availability zones in AWS? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/using-regions-availability-zones.html Q39. What is a direct connect? AWS Direct Connect makes it easy to establish a dedicated network connection from your premises to AWS. Using AWS Direct Connect, you can establish private connectivity between AWS and your datacenter, office, or colocation environment, which in many cases can reduce your network costs, increase bandwidth throughput, and provide a more consistent network experience than Internet-based connections. Q40. Where are the backup snapshots get a store in AWS? Backup snapshots stored in S3. Q41. What is the support options available in AWS? AWS provides 4 support options: Basic Developer Business Enterprise Q42. How you will setup VPN for AWS VPC? https://aws.amazon.com/premiumsupport/knowledge-center/create-connection-vpc/ Q43. Difference between Elastic Beanstalk and Cloud Formation? They're actually pretty different. Elastic Beanstalk is intended to make developers' lives easier. CloudFormation is intended to make systems engineers' lives easier. Q44.Describe the steps to set up a VPC? https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AmazonVPC/latest/UserGuide/getting-started-ipv4.html Q45. What is MFA in AWS? how it works? Multi Factor Authentication (MFA) provides additional security by authenticating the users to enter a unique authentication code from an approved authentication device or SMS text message when they access AWS websites or services. If the MFA code is correct, then only the user can access AWS services or else not Q46. Compare AWS and OpenStack Criteria AWS OpenStack License Amazon proprietary Open Source Operating System Whatever cloud administrator provides Whatever AMIs provided by AWS Performing repeatable operations Through templates Through text files Q47. What is the importance of buffer in Amazon Web Services? A buffer will synchronize different components and makes the arrangement additional elastic to a burst of load or traffic. The components are prone to work in an unstable way of receiving and processing the requests. The buffer creates the equilibrium linking various apparatus and crafts them effort at the identical rate to supply more rapid services. Q48. What is the way to secure data for carrying in the cloud? One thing must be ensured that no one should seize the information in the cloud while data is moving from point one to another and also there should not be any leakage with the security key from several storerooms in the cloud. Segregation of information from additional companies’ information and then encrypting it by means of approved methods is one of the options. Q49. Distinguish between scalability and flexibility The aptitude of any scheme to enhance the tasks on hand on its present hardware resources to grip inconsistency in command is known as scalability. The capability of a scheme to augment the tasks on hand on its present and supplementary hardware property is recognized as flexibility, hence enabling the industry to convene command devoid of putting in the infrastructure at all. Q50. Name the various layers of the cloud architecture There are 5 layers and are listed below CC- Cluster Controller SC- Storage Controller CLC- Cloud Controller Walrus NC- Node Controller Q51. Define auto-scaling. Auto- scaling is one of the remarkable features of AWS where it permits you to arrange and robotically stipulation and spin up fresh examples without the requirement for your involvement. This can be achieved by setting brinks and metrics to watch. If those entrances are overcome, a fresh example of your selection will be configured, spun up and copied into the weight planner collection. Q52. Which automation gears can help with spinup services? The API tools can be used for spinup services and also for the written scripts. Those scripts could be coded in Perl, bash or other languages of your preference. There is one more option that is patterned administration and stipulating tools such as a dummy or improved descendant. A tool called Scalr can also be used and finally we can go with a controlled explanation like a Rightscale. Q53. How the processes start, stop and terminate works? How? Starting and stopping of an instance: If an instance gets stopped or ended, the instance functions a usual power cut and then change over to a clogged position. You can establish the case afterward since all the EBS volumes of Amazon remain attached. If an instance is in stopping state, then you will not get charged for additional instance. Finishing the instance: If an instance gets terminated it tends to perform a typical blackout, so the EBS volumes which are attached will get removed except the volume’s deleteOnTermination characteristic is set to zero. In such cases, the instance will get removed and cannot set it up afterward. Q54. What is the relation between an instance and AMI? AMI can be elaborated as Amazon Machine Image, basically, a template consisting software configuration part. For example an OS, applications, application server. If you start an instance, a duplicate of the AMI in a row as an unspoken attendant in the cloud. Q55. Mention what are the key components of AWS? The key components of AWS are Route 53:A DNS web service Simple E-mail Service:It allows sending e-mail using RESTFUL API call or via regular SMTP Identity and Access Management:It provides enhanced security and identity management for your AWS account Simple Storage Device or (S3):It is a storage device and the most widely used AWS service Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): It provides on-demand computing resources for hosting applications. It is very useful in case of unpredictable workloads Elastic Block Store (EBS):It provides persistent storage volumes that attach to EC2 to allow you to persist data past the lifespan of a single EC2 CloudWatch: To monitor AWS resources, It allows administrators to view and collect key Also, one can set a notification alarm in case of trouble. Q56. What kind of network performance parameters can you expect when you launch instances in cluster placement group? The network performance depends on the instance type and network performance specification, if launched in a placement group you can expect up to 10 Gbps in a single-flow, 20 Gbps in multiflow i.e full duplex Network traffic outside the placement group will be limited to 5 Gbps(full duplex). Q57. What are the best practices for Security in Amazon EC2? There are several best practices to secure Amazon EC2. A few of them are given below: Use AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) to control access to your AWS resources. Restrict access by only allowing trusted hosts or networks to access ports on your instance. Review the rules in your security groups regularly, and ensure that you apply the principle of least Privilege – only open up permissions that you require. Disable password-based logins for instances launched from your AMI. Passwords can be found or cracked, and are a security risk. Q58. How can you speed up data transfer in Snowball? The data transfer can be increased in the following way: By performing multiple copy operations at one time i.e. if the workstation is powerful enough, you can initiate multiple cp commands each from different terminals, on the same Snowball device. Copying from multiple workstations to the same snowball. Transferring large files or by creating a batch of small file, this will reduce the encryption overhead. Eliminating unnecessary hops i.e. make a setup where the source machine(s) and the snowball are the only machines active on the switch being used, this can hugely improve performance. Q59. If I’m using Amazon CloudFront, can I use Direct Connect to transfer objects from my own data center? Yes. Amazon CloudFront supports custom origins including origins from outside of AWS. With AWS Direct Connect, you will be charged with the respective data transfer rates. Q60. How is Amazon RDS, DynamoDB and Redshift different? Amazon RDS is a database management service for relational databases, it manages patching, upgrading, backing up of data etc. of databases for you without your intervention. RDS is a Db management service for structured data only. DynamoDB, on the other hand, is a NoSQL database service, NoSQL deals with unstructured data. Redshift, is an entirely different service, it is a data warehouse product and is used in data analysis. Q61. Can I retrieve only a specific element of the data, if I have a nested JSON data in DynamoDB? Yes. When using the GetItem, BatchGetItem, Query or Scan APIs, you can define a Projection Expression to determine which attributes should be retrieved from the table. Those attributes can include scalars, sets, or elements of a JSON document. Q62.What is the difference between Scalability and Elasticity? Scalability is the ability of a system to increase its hardware resources to handle the increase in demand. It can be done by increasing the hardware specifications or increasing the processing nodes. Elasticity is the ability of a system to handle increase in the workload by adding additional hardware resources when the demand increases(same as scaling) but also rolling back the scaled resources, when the resources are no longer needed. This is particularly helpful in Cloud environments, where a pay per use model is followed. Q63. How is AWS Elastic Beanstalk different than AWS OpsWorks? AWS Elastic Beanstalk is an application management platform while OpsWorks is a configuration management platform. BeanStalk is an easy to use service which is used for deploying and scaling web applications developed with Java, .Net, PHP, Node.js, Python, Ruby, Go and Docker. Customers upload their code and Elastic Beanstalk automatically handles the deployment. The application will be ready to use without any infrastructure or resource configuration. In contrast, AWS Opsworks is an integrated configuration management platform for IT administrators or DevOps engineers who want a high degree of customization and control over operations. Q64. What happens if my application stops responding to requests in beanstalk? AWS Beanstalk applications have a system in place for avoiding failures in the underlying infrastructure. If an Amazon EC2 instance fails for any reason, Beanstalk will use Auto Scaling to automatically launch a new instance. Beanstalk can also detect if your application is not responding on the custom link, even though the infrastructure appears healthy, it will be logged as an environmental event( e.g a bad version was deployed) so you can take an appropriate action. For Contact Mor On AWS Online TrainingContinue reading
Cloud Computing Interview Questions
DevOps Interview Questions
Q.What Are The Benefits Of The NoSQL? Ans: Non-relational and schema-less data model Low latency and high performance Highly scalable Q. What Are Adoptions Of DevOps In Industry? Ans: Use of agile and other development processes and methods. Demand for an increased rate of production releases from application and business. Wide availability of virtual and cloud infrastructure from both internal and external providers; Increased usage of data center ,automation and configuration management tools; Increased focus on test automation and continuous integration methods; Best practices on critical issues. Q. How Would You Explain The Concept Of “infrastructure As Code” (iac) ? Ans: It is a good idea to talk about IaC as a concept, which is sometimes referred to as a programmable infrastructure, where infrastructure is perceived in the same way as any other code. Describe how the traditional approach to managing infrastructure is taking a back seat and how manual configurations, obsolete tools, and custom scripts are becoming less reliable. Next, accentuate the benefits of IaC and how changes to IT infrastructure can be implemented in a faster, safer and easier manner using IaC. Include the other benefits of IaC like applying regular unit testing and integration testing to infrastructure configurations, and maintaining up-to-date infrastructure documentation. Devops Video Training. Q.How Is Chef Used As A Cm Tool ? Ans: Chef is considered to be one of the preferred industry-wide CM tools. Facebook migrated its infrastructure and backend IT to the Chef platform, for example. Explain how Chef helps you to avoid delays by automating processes. The scripts are written in Ruby. It can integrate with cloud-based platforms and configure new systems. It provides many libraries for infrastructure development that can later be deployed within a software. Thanks to its centralized management system, one Chef server is enough to be used as the center for deploying various policies. Q.Why Are Configuration Management Processes And Tools Important ? Ans: Talk about multiple software builds, releases, revisions, and versions for each software or testware that is being developed. Move on to explain the need for storing and maintaining data, keeping track of development builds and simplified troubleshooting. Don’t forget to mention the key CM tools that can be used to achieve these objectives. Talk about how tools like Puppet, Ansible, and Chef help in automating software deployment and configuration on several servers. Q.Which Are Some Of The Most Popular Devops Tools ? Ans: The more popular DevOps tools include: Selenium Puppet Chef Git Jenkins Ansible Docker Devops Online Training Q.How We Can Make Sure New Service Is Ready For The Products Launched? Ans: Backup System Recovery plans Load Balancing Monitoring Centralized logging Q.What Are The Major Difference Between The Linux And Unix Operating Systems ? Ans: Unix: It belongs to the family of multitasking, multiuser operating systems. These are mostly used in internet servers and workstations. It is originally derived from AT&T Unix, developed starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Both the operating systems are open source but UNIX is relatively similar one as compared to LINUX. Linux: Linux has probably been home to every programming language known to humankind. These are used for personal computers. The LINUX is based on the kernel of UNIX operating system. Q.What Are Vagrant And Its Uses? Ans: Vagrant used virtual box as the hypervisor for virtual environments and in current scenario it is also supporting the KVM. Kernel-based Virtual Machine Vagrant is a tool that can create and manage environments for testing and developing software. Devops Training Free Demo Q.How Devops Is Helpful To Developers ? Ans: To fix the bug and implement new features quickly. It provides the clarity of communication among team members. Q.Name The Popular Scripting Language Of Devops ? Ans: Python Q.List The Agile Methodology Of Devops? Ans: DevOps is a process Agile is same as DevOps. Separate group for are framed. It is problem solving. Developers managing production DevOps is development-driven release management Q.Which Are The Areas Where Devops Are Implemented? Ans: Production Development Creation of the production feedback and its development IT Operations development Q.The Scope For Ssh ? Ans: SSH is a Secure Shell which provides users with a secure, encrypted mechanism to log into systems and transfer files. To log out a remote machine and work on command line. To secure encrypted communications between two hosts over an insecure network. Q. What Are The Advantages Of Devops With Respect To Technical And Business Perspective? Ans: Technical benefits: Software delivery is continuous. Reduces Complexity in problems. Faster approach to resolve problems Manpower is reduced. Business benefits: High rate of delivering its features Stable operating environments More time gained to Add values. Enabling faster feature time to market Q.What Are The Core Operations Of Devops In Terms Of Development And Infrastructure ? Ans: The core operations of DevOps: Application development Code developing Code coverage Unit testing Packaging Deployment With infrastructure Provisioning Configuration Orchestration Deployment Q.What Are The Anti-patterns Of Devops? Ans: A pattern is common usage usually followed. If a pattern commonly adopted by others does not work for your organization and you continue to blindly follow it, you are essentially adopting an anti-pattern. There are myths about DevOps. Some of them include: DevOps is a process Agile equals DevOps We need a separate DevOps group Devops will solve all our problems DevOps means Developers Managing Production DevOps is Development-driven release management DevOps is not development driven. DevOps is not IT Operations driven. We can’t do DevOps – We’re Unique We can’t do DevOps – We’ve got the wrong people Q.Explain With A Use Case Where Devops Can Be Used In Industry/ Real-life? Ans: There are many industries that are using DevOps so you can mention any of those use cases, you can also refer the below example: Etsy is a peer-to-peer e-commerce website focused on handmade or vintage items and supplies, as well as unique factory-manufactured items. Etsy struggled with slow, painful site updates that frequently caused the site to go down. It affected sales for millions of Etsy’s users who sold goods through online market place and risked driving them to the competitor. With the help of a new technical management team, Etsy transitioned from its waterfall model, which produced four-hour full-site deployments twice weekly, to a more agile approach. Today, it has a fully automated deployment pipeline, and its continuous delivery practices have reportedly resulted in more than 50 deployments a day with fewer disruptions. Q.What Is The Most Important Thing Devops Helps Us Achieve? Ans: According to me, the most important thing that DevOps helps us achieve is to get the changes into production as quickly as possible while minimizing risks in software quality assurance and compliance. This is the primary objective of DevOps. For example: clearer communication and better working relationships between teams i.e. both the Ops team and Dev team collaborate together to deliver good quality software which in turn leads to higher customer satisfaction. Q.What Are The Advantages Of Devops? Ans: Technical benefits: Continuous software delivery Less complex problems to fix Faster resolution of problems Business benefits: Faster delivery of features More stable operating environments More time available to add value (rather than fix/maintain) Q.How Do All These Tools Work Together? Ans: Given below is a generic logical flow where everything gets automated for seamless delivery. However, this flow may vary from organization to organization as per the requirement. Developers develop the code and this source code is managed by Version Control System tools like Git etc. Developers send this code to the Git repository and any changes made in the code is committed to this Repository. Jenkins pulls this code from the repository using the Git plugin and build it using tools like Ant or Maven. Configuration management tools like puppet deploys & provisions testing environment and then Jenkins releases this code on the test environment on which testing is done using tools like selenium. Once the code is tested, Jenkins send it for deployment on the production server (even production server is provisioned & maintained by tools like a puppet). After deployment, It is continuously monitored by tools like Nagios. Docker containers provide a testing environment to test the build features. Q.Which Are The Top DevOps Tools? Ans: The most popular DevOps tools are mentioned below: Git: Version Control System tool Jenkins: Continuous Integration tool Selenium: Continuous Testing tool Puppet, Chef, Ansible: Configuration Management and Deployment tools Nagios: Continuous Monitoring tool Docker: Containerization tool Q. How Is Devops Different From Agile / Sdlc? Ans: Agile is a set of values and principles about how to produce i.e. develop software. Example: if you have some ideas and you want to turn those ideas into working software, you can use the Agile values and principles as a way to do that. But, that software might only be working on a developer’s laptop or in a test environment. You want a way to quickly, easily and repeatably move that software into production infrastructure, in a safe and simple way. To do that you need DevOps tools and techniques. You can summarize by saying Agile software development methodology focuses on the development of software but DevOps, on the other hand, is responsible for development as well as the deployment of the software in the safest and most reliable way possible. Here’s a blog that will give you more information on the evolution of DevOps. Q.What Is The Need For Devops? Ans: According to me, this answer should start by explaining the general market trend. Instead of releasing big sets of features, companies are trying to see if small features can be transported to their customers through a series of release trains. This has many advantages like quick feedback from customers, better quality of software etc. which in turn leads to high customer satisfaction. To achieve this, companies are required to: Increase deployment frequency Lower failure rate of new releases Shortened lead time between fixes Faster mean time to recovery in the event of new release crashing DevOps fulfills all these requirements and helps in achieving seamless software delivery. You can give examples of companies like Etsy, Google and Amazon which have adopted DevOps to achieve levels of performance that were unthinkable even five years ago. They are doing tens, hundreds or even thousands of code deployments per day while delivering world class stability, reliability and security. Contact for more on DevOps Online TrainingContinue reading
Salesforce Interview Questions
Q.What is the difference between private cloud and public cloud ? Is salesforce.com is a private cloud and public cloud? Ans: Public Cloud: Cloud services are provided “aaS” as a Service over the Internet with little or no control over the underlying infrastructure.Same resources are used by more than one tenant(customer). Private Cloud: Cloud services are provide “as a service” but is deployed over a hosted data center or company intranet. This is private product for an organization offering advance security. Salesforce.com: Is a public cloud as data of more than one tenant resides on same servers and is hosted on salesforce.com data centers. Q.What are different kinds of reports? Ans: 1. Tabular: Tabular reports are the simplest and fastest way to look at data.They are made of ordered set of fields in columns, with each matching record listed in a row. They can’t be used to create charts or groups of data, and only can be used in dashboards if rows are limited.Tabular reports are best for creating a list with a single grand total or lists of records. Examples include activity reports and contact mailing lists. 2.Summary: These are similar to tabular reports, but they also allow users to view subtotals, create charts and group rows of data. They can be used as the source report for dashboard components. These are used for a report to show subtotals of the value of a particular field or when you want to create a hierarchical list, such as all opportunities for your team, subtotaled by Stage and Owner. On the report run page, summary reports with no groupings are shown as tabular reports. 3.Matrix: Matrix reports are similar to summary reports but allow you to group and summarize data by both rows and columns. For dashboard components, they can be used as the source report. Use this type for comparing related totals, especially if you have large amounts of data to summarize and you need to compare values in several different fields, or you want to look at data by date and by geography, product, or person.Matrix reports without at least one row and one column grouping show as summary reports on the report run page. 4.Joined: Joined reports let you create multiple report blocks that provide different views of your data. Each block acts like a “sub-report,” with its own columns, sorting, fields, and filtering. A joined report can even contain data from different report types. Q.What are different kinds of dashboard component? Ans: Chart: If you want to show data graphically. Gauge: If you have a single value which you want to show within a range of custom values. Metric: It is used t when you have one key value to display. Enter metric labels directly on components by clicking the empty text field next to the grand total. Metric components placed directly above and below each other in a dashboard column are displayed together as a single component. Table: It is used to show a set of report data in column form. Visualforce Page: It is used t when you want to create a custom component or show information not available in another component type Custom S-Control: It can contain any type of content that can be displayed or run in a browser, for example an ActiveX control, an Excel file, a Java applet,, or a custom HTML Web form Q.What actions can be performed using Workflows? Ans: Following workflow actions can be performed in a workflow: Email Alert: Using an email template by a workflow rule or approval process, approval actions are generated and sent to Salesforce users or others, are called email alerts. Field Update:Field updates are workflow and approval actions that specify the field you want updated and the new value for it. Depending on the type of field, you can choose to make the value blank , apply a specific value,, or calculate a value based on a formula you create. Task: Assigns a task to a user you specify. You can specify the Status, Priority, Subject,, and Due Date of the task. Tasks are workflow and approval actions that are triggered by workflow rules or approval processes. Outbound Message: An outbound message is a workflow, approval, or milestone action that sends the information you specify to an endpoint you designate, such as an external service.It the data in the specified fields in the form of a SOAP message to the endpoint. Q.What are groups in SFDC and what is their use? Ans: Groups are sets of users. They can contain individual users, other groups, the users in a particular role or territory, or the users in a particular role or territory plus all of the users below that role or territory in the hierarchy. There are two types of groups: Personal groups: Each user can create groups for their personal use. Public groups: Only administrators can create public groups. They can be used by everyone in the organization. You can use groups in the following ways: To set up default sharing access via a sharing rule To add multiple users to a Salesforce CRM Content library To share your records with other users To specify that you want to synchronize contacts owned by others users To assign users to specific actions in Salesforce Knowledge Q.What is Visualforce View State? Ans: Visualforce pages that contain a form component also contain an encrypted, hidden form field that encapsulates the view state of the page. This view state is automatically created, and as its name suggests, it holds the state of the page – state that includes the components, field values and controller state. Q.Which objects can be imported by Import Wizard? Ans: Following objects can be imported using import wizard. Accounts Contacts Leads Solutions Custom Objects Q.What is Profile and Components? Ans: profile contains user permissions and access settings that control what users can do within their organization. A collection of settings and permissions that define how a user accesses records – Determines how users see data and what they can do within the application – A profile can have many users, but a user can have only one profile Profiles Components: Which standard and custom apps users can view Which tabs users can view Which record types are available to users Which page layouts users see Object permissions that allow users to create, read, edit, and delete records Which fields within objects users can view and edit Permissions that allow users to manage the system and apps within it Which Apex classes and Visualforce pages users can access Which desktop clients users can access The hours during which and IP addresses from which users can log in Which service providers users can access (if Salesforce is enabled as an identity provider) Q.What is PermissionSet? Ans: PermissionSet represents a set of permissions that’s used to grant additional access to one or more users without changing their profile or reassigning profiles. You can use permission sets to grant access, but not to deny access. Every PermissionSet is associated with a user license. You can only assign permission sets to users who have the same user license that’s associated with the permission set. If you want to assign similar permissions to users with different licenses, create multiple permission sets with the same permissions, but with different licenses. Permission sets include settings for: Assigned apps Object settings, which include: Tab settings Object permissions Field permissions App permissions Apex class access Visualforce page access System permissions Service providers (only if you’ve enabled Salesforce as an identity provider) Q.Profile Vs Permission Sets Permissions and Access Settings? Ans: User permissions and access settings specify what users can do within an organization. Permissions and access settings are specified in user profiles and permission sets. Every user is assigned only one profile, but can also have multiple permission sets. When determining access for your users, it’s a good idea to use profiles to assign the minimum permissions and access settings for specific groups of users, then use permission sets to grant additional permissions. The following table shows the types of permissions and access settings that are specified in profiles and permission sets. Some profile settings aren’t included in permission sets. Q.What are the Standard Profiles available in Salesforce? Ans: Six (6) Standard Profiles (EE/UE and PE) Standard User – Can view, edit, and delete their own records Contract Manager – Standard User permissions + Can edit, approve, activate, and delete contracts Read-Only – Can only view records System Administrator – “Super User,” can customize and administer the application Solution Manager – Standard User permissions + Can manage published solutions + Can manage categories Marketing User – Standard User permissions + Can import leads for the organization Q.What is the Force.com Platform? Ans: – Create customize,and integrate enterprise applications as a service and without software. – Standard applications provided by salesforce.com, you can customize or build your own on-demand applications – Group standard and custom tabs into new custom applications Q.Salesforce Editions and Limits? Ans: – Personal Edition – Contact Manager – Group Edition – Professional Edition – Enterprise Edition – Unlimited Edition – Developer Edition Q.What are Standard Business Objects? Ans: Campaigns: A Campaign is any marketing project that you want to plan, manage, and track in Salesforce. Leads: A Lead is any person, organization or company that may be interested in your products. Sometimes Leads are referred to as Prospects or Suspects. Leads are not yet customers. Accounts: An Account is an organization, individual or company involved with your business such as customers, competitors and partners that you wish to track in Salesforce. Contacts: A Contact is any individual or influencer associated with an account that you want to track in Salesforce. Opportunities: An Opportunity is any potential revenue-generating event (“sales deal” ) that you want to track in Salesforce. Cases: A case is a detailed description of a customer’s feedback, problem or question. Solutions: A solution is a detailed description of a customer issue and the resolution of that issue. The collection of your organization’s solutions is sometimes referred to as the solution knowledge base. Forecasts: A forecast is your best estimate of how much revenue you can generate in a quarter. Documents: Reports: Reports are summaries and analyses of your data, which you can display or print. Dashboards: Dashboards give you a real-time snapshot of corporate metrics and key performance indicators. A dashboard is a group of different charts (or components) that graphically display your custom report data. Calendar and Task: Activities are both tasks and scheduled calendar events. You can define and track activities for many different objects, including campaigns, accounts, contacts, and leads. Products: Products are the individual items that you sell on your opportunities. (Please note that Products are available in EE/UE and Developer and in PE for an additional fee.) Please note, not all Standard Objects are depicted in the above slide or discussed in the notes. Please refer to Help in Salesforce for more information. Q.What is a Company Profile? Ans: Contains core information for your company Language, Locale and Time Zone Licenses Storage and Used Space Fiscal Year Primary Contact and Address information Manage Currencies Q.What is a Fiscal Year in Salesforce? Ans: – Used for an organizations financial planning – Usually a year in length – Impacts forecasts, quotas and reports Salesforce allows two types: –Standard Fiscal Years are periods that follow the Gregorian calendar, but can start on the first day of any month of the year. (A Gregorian Year is a calendar based on a 12 Month Structure and is used throughout much of the world.) –Custom Fiscal Years are for companies that break down their fiscal years, quarters and weeks in to custom fiscal periods based on their financial planning requirements. Forecasting can NOT be used with Custom Fiscal Years Customizable Forecasting must be enabled for use with Custom Fiscal Years Q.What is Standard and Custom Fields in Salesforce? Ans: Standard Fields What is a Standard Field? – Standard Fields are pre-defined in Salesforce – You cannot delete standard fields but you can remove non-required standard fields from a page layout Standard Field customizations include the ability to change standard field labels and tabs You can change the display labels of standard tabs, objects, fields, and other related user interface labels so they better reflect your organization’s business requirements. Renamed labels – for example, “Accounts” changed to “Companies” – display on all user pages, in Outlook Edition, and in Offline Edition. It’s important to note that all pages in the Setup area use the default, original labels. Reports and views are not renamed based on the new label value. Q.What is a Custom Field? Ans: – Capture information unique to your business process by creating custom fields with custom field help for each of the tabs that your organization uses – Limits: –Recycle Bin for Deleted Custom Fields –Custom fields are deleted permanently after 45 days Q.Is it possible to change the existing data types of custom fields, if Yes please explain? Ans: Yes. It’s possible but Changing the datatype of an existing custom field can cause data loss in the following situations: Changing to or from type Date or Date/Time Changing to Number from any other type Changing to Percent from any other type Changing to Currency from any other type Changing from Checkbox to any other type Changing from Picklist (Multi-Select) to any other type Changing to Picklist (Multi-Select) from any type except Picklist Changing from Auto Number to any other type Changing to Auto Number from any type except Text Changing from Text Area (Long) to any type except Email, Phone, Text, Text Area, or URL Q.What is a dependent picklist? Ans: – Dependent fields can help make your data more accurate and consistent by applying filters. – A dependent field works in conjunction with a controlling field to filter its values. The value chosen in the controlling field affects the values available in the dependent field. – 300 is the maximum number of values allowed in a controlling picklist. – A custom multi-select picklist cannot be the controlling field for a dependent field Q.What is Page Layout and Record Types? Ans: Page Layout: – How detail and edit pages are organized – Page section customizations – Which fields, related lists, and Custom Links a user sees – Field properties – visible, read-only and required Record Types: – Allows you to define different sets of picklist values for both standard and custom picklists – Record Types help you implement your custom business processes Q.What do you mean by Business Process? Ans: Allows you to track separate support, sales, and across different divisions, markets, groups, or Available Business Processes: – Sales Processes – Create different sales processes that include some or all of the picklist values available for the Opportunity Stage field – Support Processes – Create different support processes that include some or all of the picklist values available for the Case Status field – Lead Processes – Create different lead processes that include some or all of the picklist values available for the Lead Status field – Solution Processes – Create different solution processes that include some or all of the picklist values available for the Solution Status field Q.What are the Objects available in the Salesforce Business Process and Give some Business Process Example? Ans: Lead Opportunity Case SolutionBusiness Process Examples Lead Processes: Opportunities Sales Processes: Case Processes: Solutions Processes: Q.What about Web-to-Lead and Web-to-Case? Ans: –A lead or case record created through Web-to-Lead or Web-to-Case will set the record type to that of the default lead owner or automated case user (optional) Q.On which tabs can I create multiple record types? Ans: –Multiple record types may be created for every tab, with the exception of the Home, Forecasts, Documents, and Reports tabs. Q.What happens if I need to add a picklist value? Ans: –You will be prompted to select which record types should include the new value Q.What is Field-Level Security? Ans: It Defines users’ access to view and edit specific fields in the application Q.Why use Field-Level Security? Ans: Use Field-Level Security (rather than creating multiple page layouts) to enforce data security Users view data relevant to their job function Troubleshooting Tools Q.What are Login Hours and Login IP Ranges? Ans: Used to set the hours when user with a particular profile can use the system Used to set the IP addresses from which user with a particular profile can log in What is a User Record? Ans: Key information about a user unique username password Status of user : active or inactive Profile Role Q.What is a Record Owner? Ans: The user (or queue for Cases and Leads) who controls or has rights to that particular data record Q.What are Organization Wide Defaults? Ans: – Defines the baseline level of access to data records for all users in the Organization (not including records owned by the user or inherited via role hierarchy) – Used to restrict access to data Access levels: -Private -Public Read/Write -Public Read/Write/Transfer -Controlled by Parent -Public Read Only Q.What is a Role and Role Hierarchy? Ans: Role: Controls the level of visibility that users have to an organization’s data – A user may be associated to one role Role Hierarchy: – Controls data visibility – Controls record roll up – forecasting and reporting – Users inherit the special privileges of data owned by or shared with users below them in the hierarchy – Not necessarily the company’s organization chart Notes: If using Customizable Forecasting, there is a separate forecast role hierarchy. EE can create Account, Contact, Opportunity and Case Sharing Rules. PE can ONLY create Account and Contact Sharing Rules. Assuming no sharing rules have been created, users in the same role cannot access one another’s records. Example: Org Wide Default settings for opportunities are private. Creating a role and adding two users to that role does not allow those users access to one another’s opportunities. “Grant Access Using Hierarchies” allows you to disable the default sharing access granted by your role and territory hierarchies. This option can be changed for custom objects that do not have their organization-wide default sharing setting set to Controlled by Parent. Q.What is Access at the Role Level? Ans: – Defined when creating a role – Level of access to Opportunities associated to Accounts owned by the role – Level of access to Contacts associated to Accounts owned by the Role – Level of access to Cases associated to Accounts owned by the role – Level of access options depend on OWD Q.What is a Sharing Rule? Ans: These are Automated rules that grant access to groups of users for levels of Access that can be granted like Read Only or Read/Write Q.Types of Sharing Rules in Salesforce and Explain it? Ans: Account Sharing Rules: – Based on who owns the account – Set default sharing access for accounts and their associated cases, contacts, contracts, and opportunities Contact Sharing Rules: – Based on who owns the contact (must be associated with an account) – Set default sharing access for individual contacts and their associated accounts – Cannot use with: Territory Management and B2I (Person Account) enabled orgs Opportunity Sharing Rules (EE/UE): – Based on who owns the opportunity – Set default sharing access for individual opportunities and their associated accounts Case Sharing Rules (EE/UE): – Based on who owns the case – Set default sharing access for individual cases and associated accounts Lead Sharing Rules (EE/UE): – Based on who owns the lead – Set default sharing access for individual leads Custom Object Sharing Rules (EE/UE): – Based on who owns the custom object – Set default sharing access for individual custom object records Q.Use cases for Sharing Rules in salesforce? Ans: – Organizations with organization-wide defaults of Public Read Only or Private can create sharing rules to give specific users access to data owned by other users. – Cases Sharing – Account Sharing Q.Best Practices of Creating Contact Sharing Rules? Ans: – Account Org-Wide Default must be set to at least “Public Read Only” in order to set the Contact Org-Wide Default to “Public Read/Write”. – To share ALL contacts in the system with a group of users or a specific role, create a sharing rule that uses the “All Internal Users” (or “Entire Organization”) public group as the owned by option. – Use “Roles and Subordinates” over “Roles” where possible to minimize the number of sharing rules. Q.What is a Public Group? Ans: – A grouping of: Users Public Groups (nesting) Roles Roles and Subordinates – Mixture of any of these elements – Used in Sharing Rules – for simplification (when more than a few roles need to be shared to) – Also used when defining access to Folders and List Views For example, if a new user is assigned a role that belongs to an existing public group, that user will be automatically added to the public group Q.What is Manual Sharing? Ans: – Granting record access, one-off basis – Owner, anyone above owner in role hierarchy and administrator can manually share records – Available on Contacts, Leads, Cases, Accounts and Opportunity records and Custom Objects – Like sharing rules, irrelevant for Public Read/Write organizations Q.What is a Sales Team? (EE/UE) Ans: – Used for collaborative selling – Used for sharing as well as reporting purposes – Ad hoc or may use Default Sales Team (defined for user) – Default Sales Teams may be automatically added to a user’s opportunities – Who can add a Sales Team? Owner Anyone above owner in role hierarchy Administrator Q.What is an Account Team? (EE/UE) Ans: – Used for collaborative account management – Used for sharing as well as reporting purposes – Manually added to Account records – Default Account Teams may be automatically added to a user’s accounts – Who can add an account team? Owner Anyone above owner in role hierarchy Administrator Please note that Account Teams are not available for Professional Edition. Q.What is an Case Team? (EE/UE) Ans: Case teams enable full communication and collaboration on solving customer issues. You can: – Add teams of users to cases – Create a workflow for case teams – Predefine case teams for users – Determine the level of access – Administrators can predefine case teams for users and determine the level of access each team member has to a case, such as Read/Write or Read/Only. Q.What are Folders? Ans: – Used for organizing email templates, documents, reports and dashboards – Access is defined – Read or Read/Write – Access is explicit – does NOT roll up through role hierarchy Q.What is Workflow? Ans: Salesforce Workflow gives you the ability to automatically: Create and send email alerts Create and assign tasks Update field values to either specific values, or based on formulas Create and send outbound API messages Create and execute time-dependent actions Q.What are Workflow Components available? Ans: Workflow Rules – trigger criteria for performing various workflow actions Workflow Tasks – action that assigns a task to a targeted user Workflow Email Alerts – action that sends an email to targeted recipients Workflow Field Updates – action that updates the value of a field automatically Workflow Outbound Messages – action that sends a secure configurable API message (in XML format) to a designated listener Q.What is a Workflow Rule? Ans: – Defined trigger criteria based on your business requirements – Evaluated when record is created, when created/updated, OR when created/updated and did not previously meet trigger criteria – When trigger criteria is met workflow actions, such as email alerts, tasks, field updates, or outbound messages are generated Q.What is a Workflow Task? Ans: When a Workflow Rule is met, a Task may be assigned to designated users to follow-up and respond to the Business Conditions in the Workflow Rule – Workflow Tasks may be assigned to a user, role, record owner, record creator, sales team role, or account team Q.What is a Workflow Alert? Ans: Workflow Alerts are emails generated by a workflow rule whenever specific Business Actions trigger the rule Q.What is a Workflow Field Update? Ans: Field updates enables you to automatically change the value of a field to a specific value. Depending on the type of field you can: Change it to a specific value Make it blank Calculate a value based on a formula you create Q.What is Salesforce? Ans: Salesforce is one of the most flexible and powerful web based databases available on the market. More than 170,000 companies and 17,000 nonprofit organizations have already discovered the results Salesforce.com can deliver.Cloud for Synagogues is built on the Salesforce platform. It is a great starting point for any synagogue looking to track constituents, members, donors, Yahrzeits, Aliyahs, donations, Sunday School attendance, volunteers, and cases. Q.What is a cloud computing? Ans: Cloud computing is a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data rather than having local servers or personal devices to handle applications. Q.What is App in Salesforce? Ans: An app is a group of tabs that work as a unit to provide functionality. Users can switch between apps using the Force.com app drop-down menu at the top-right corner of every page.You can customize existing apps to match the way you work, or build new apps by grouping standard and custom tabs. Navigation to create app in Sales force: Setup ->Build ->Create->App-> Click on new and create your application according to your requirements. Q.What is object in Salesforce? Ans: Custom objects are database tables that allow you to store data specific to your organization in salesforce.com. You can use custom objects to extend salesforce.com functionality or to build new application functionality.Once you have created a custom object, you can create a custom tab, custom related lists, reports, and dashboards for users to interact with the custom object data. You can also access custom object data through the Force.com API. Navigation to create object in sales force: Setup->Build->Create->Object-> Click on new object and create object according to your requirement. Q.What is a SALESFORCE.COM? Ans: Salesforce.com is a global cloud computing company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Though best known for its customer relationship management (CRM) product, It is currently ranked the most innovative company in America by Forbes magazine.The company was founded in March 1999 by former Oracle executive Marc Benioff. Q.What is a CRM? Ans: Customer relationship management (CRM) is a model for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales,marketing, customer service, and technical support. Q.What are the benefits of CRM? Ans: – Growth in Number of customers. – Maximization of opportunities. – Long term profitability and sustainability. – Helps sales staff closedealy faster. – Reduce cost. – Increase Customer satisfaction – Ensuring customer focus. Q.List things that can be customized on page layouts? Ans: We can customize different things on page layout like, Fields, Buttons, Custom Links and Related Lists. We can also create sections. Q.What is a “Self Relationship”? Ans: Self Relationship is a lookup relationship to the same object. Suppose let’s take an object “Merchandise”. Here we can create relationship in between the Account to Account (same object) object. That is called “Self Relationship”. Q.What are the main things need to consider in the “Master-Detail Relationship”? Ans: Record level access is determined by the parent, Mandatory on child for reference of parent, cascade delete (if you delete the parent, it can cascade delete the child). Q.What is difference between trigger and workflow? Ans: Workflow Workflow is automated process that fired an action based on Evaluation criteria and rule criteria. We can access a workflow across the object. We cannot perform DML operation on workflow We cannot query from database Trigger Trigger is a piece of code that executes before or after a record is inserted or updated. We can access the trigger across the object and related to that objects We can use 20 DML operations in one trigger. We can use 20 SOQL’s from data base in one trigger. Q.What is Wrapper class? Ans: A Wrapper class is a class whose instances are collection of other objects. It is used to display different objects on a Visual Force page in same table. Q.What is Difference between SOQL and SOSL? Ans: SOQL(Salesforce Object Query Language) Using SOQL we can Search only on one object at a time. We can query on all fields of any datatype We can use SOQL in Triggers and classes. We can perform DML operation on query results. SOSL(Salesforce object Search Language) Using SOSL we can search on many objects at a time. We can query only on fields whose data type is text,phone and Email. We can use in calsses but not in Triggers. We cannot perform DML operation on search result Q.What is difference insert() and database .insert() ? Ans: Using insert method we can insert the records but if any error occurs in any record system will throw an error insertion fail and none of the records are inserted. If we want to execute partially success of bulk insert operation we will use database .insert. Q.What is Static Resources? Ans: Using Static Resources we can upload images, zip files, jar files, java script and CSS files that can be referred in a visual force page. The maximum size of Static Resources for an organization is 250mB. How to call java script using Static Resource in Visual Force page? Add java script file in Static Resource setup -> develop -> Static Resources -> click on ‘New’ -> Name: filename and add file from local desktop and save. We can use that file as follows in Visual Force page Contact for more on Salesforce Online TrainingContinue reading
VMWare Interview Questions
Q.What is Service Console? The service console is developed based up on Redhat Linux Operating system, it is used to manage the VMKernel Q.What happens when you take a snapshot of virtual machine? Answer: When you take a snapshot of virtual machine, it makes a copy of the .vmdk file and its memory, saves them along with the other virtual machine files. "vmware-cmd createsnapshot " each snapshot occupies the same size of .vmdk file in the datastore. So if you take more snapshots, more space will be utilized. Q.Are we able to add odd number virtual CPUs to our virtual machines, for example 3 or 5 VCPU as compared to VI3 version when virtual SMP only supports 2 or 4 VCPU per virtual machine ? Answer: Yes, we can now add odd number VCPU to our virtual machines. Q.What is the limitation for configuring VMware Fault Tolerance for a virtual machine ? Answer: Virtual machine selected for VMware FT must be provisioned with thick disk and not thin disk, if it was provisioned with thin disk, there will be a prompt to inflate the existing disk size. Q.What is the disadvantage of configuring VM direct path I/O for a virtual machine ? Answer: With a distributed virtual switch, the network statistics and policies of the virtual machine that has been vmotion to another ESX Server will migrate with the VM. This provides the ability for network vmotion and is useful for implementing inline intrusion detection systems and firewalls. Q.Does ESX 4 and ESXi 4 support jumbo frames and TSO ? Answer: Yes, both ESX 4 and ESXi 4 provides support for jumbo frames as well as TSO, these can now be configured in the GUI as compared to VI3 where administrators could only do it via command lines. Q.What is the different between VMware Data Protection as compared to the traditional VMware Consolidated Backup ? Answer: VMware Data Protection supports all storage architecture for backup and restore via LAN and SAN. It also supports full, incremental and differential file level backup options. Get more practical explanation at VM Online Online Training Q.What is the key driving factor for users adopting VMware vCenter Data Recovery ? Answer: It's an API that runs in a virtual machine within your vCenter, it provides agentless backup and can backup virtual machines even when they are being vmotion to a different host. Q.Can we perform Storage Vmotion now via the GUI inside vCenter ? Answer: Yes, Storage Vmotion feature is now avaliable in the vSphere Client connected to vCenter Server. It provides full support for FC SAN and NFS. Q.When using vCenter Linked Mode feature, what are the functions that could be shared among the vCenters in this link ? Answer: vCenter Linked Mode allows administrator to centrally manage all the vCenter within a single view, roles and licenses can be shared across the vCenters configured in a link. Q.Do I still require a Flexnet License Server if all my ESX Servers are ESX 4 and ESXi 4 ? Answer: No, you no longer require a license server for the to manage the new ESX Servers. All licenses are managed within the vCenter Server. Q.If my customer has a hybrid environment where they still have ESX 3 and ESX 3.5, can vCenter communicate with the existing Flexnet License Server ? Answer: Yes, vCenter can communicate with existing license servers so as to allow it to manage legacy ESX Servers. vCenter will pull the licenses for legacy hosts from the flexnet license server. Q.Why am I unable to hot add CPU and memory to virtual machine ? Answer: You are required to enable this function under the virtual machine settings in order to use it. Therefore, it is advisable to enable it before you start your virtual machine for the very first time. Q.What are the basic commands to troubleshoot connectivity between vSphere Client /vCenter to ESX server? Answer: VMWare Kernel is a Proprietary kernel of vmwareand is not based on any of the flavors of Linux operating systems, .VMkernel requires an operating system to boot and manage the kernel. A service console is being provided when VMWare kernel is booted. Only service console is based up on Red hat Linux OS not VMkernel. Get practical knowledge on these commands at VM Ware Online Course Q.What is the use of Service Console port ? Answer: Service console port group required to manage the ESX server and it acts as the management network for the ESX.Vcenter/Vsphere Client uses the service console IP's to communicate with the ESX server. Q.What is the use of VMKernel Port ? Answer: Vmkernel port is used by ESX/ESXi for vmotion, ISCSI & NFS communications. ESXi uses Vmkernel as the management network since it don't have service console built with it. Q.What is the use of Virtual Machine Port Group? Answer: Virtual Machine port group is used by Virtual machine communication. Q.How Virtual Machine communicates to another servers in Network ? Answer: All the Virtual Machines which are configured in VM Port Group are able to connect to the other machines on the network. So this port group enables communication between vSwitch and Physical Switch by the use of uplink (Physical NIC) associated with the port group. Q.What are the different types of Partitions in ESX server? Answer: / -root Swap /var /Var/core /opt /home /tmp Q.What is the default number of ports configured with the Virtual Switch? Answer: When the time of Virtual switch created, Vswitch is created with 56 ports by default. We can extend the no of ports by editing the vswitch properties. Q.Is it true we can now use the new VMware Update Manager to upgrade our legacy ESX Servers (For example: ESX 3.5) to ESX 4.0 version ? Answer: Yes, the new VUM has the ability to upgrade your legacy ESX Server hosts for you. However, if you are upgrading a standalone host, you will be required to power off all virtual machines running on that host. Q.How come we are unable to use our existing VI Client to manage our ESX 4 and vCenter 4 ? Answer: No, the legacy VI Client is unable to manage newer ESX Server Hosts and vCenter. You will need to install vSphere Client to manage newer ESX Server Hosts and vCenter as well as legacy ESX Hosts. Q.In vSphere, can we configure bidirectional CHAP authentication for iSCSI ? Answer: Yes, we can now configure bidirectional CHAP authenticaton for iSCSI software. It is fully supported. Previously, we could only configure unidirectional CHAP authentication. Q.Do we still need to configure a Service Console port for iSCSI initiator ? Answer: No, we no longer need a Service Console for software iSCSI initator. The vmkiscsid no longer runs in the Service Console. There have been improvements made to the new iSCSI stack in the kernel and also with the use of TCP/IP2 which has multi threading capabilities. Q.What is the maximum number of CPU and maximum amount of memory a virtual machine can scale ? Answer: In vSphere, a virtual machine can now be configure with a maximum of 8 virtual CPUs and 255 GB of memory. Q.What is the maximum amount of logical CPUs and memory per ESX Server 4 host can scale ? Answer: ESX Server 4 now supports a maximum of 64 logical CPUs and 1 TB of memory. Get practical information on CPU's at VM Ware Training Q.What actions allow us to configure thin disk provisioning for a virtual machine ? Answer: When we create a new virtual machine, clone an existing virtual machine, clone a template or perform Storage Vmotion on an existing virtual machine. Q.What is the benefit of configuring thin disk provisioning as compared to thick disk provisioning for a virtual machine ? Answer: When we configure thin disk provisioning the virtual machine only uses the space that it requires and not the entire disk size, this allows the remaining unused space for other virtual machines. This enables us to do Storage Over-commitment and use the storage more efficiently. Q.Will my virtual machines still have connection if the virtual center that stores my Distributed vSwitch configuration goes down ? Answer: Yes, this is because the Distributed vSwitch has an control plane which sits at the vCenter Server level and an I/O plane which are the form of hidden vSwitches sitting at the ESX level. Therefore, even if the vCenter goes down, virtual machines continue to have connectivity through the I/O plane at the ESX level. Q.What is the maximum number of ESX Hosts we can connect to a single distributed switch ? Answer: We can connect up to 64 ESX hosts per distributed switch and vCenter 4 can support up a maximum of 16 distributed switches. Which means we can have up to 1024 hosts on these 16 distributed switches. Q.What is the version of the 64 bit Service Console running in ESX 4 ? Answer: The Service Console is a 2.6 linux kernel compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.2 or CentOS 5.2 version. Q.What is the maximum number of uplinks or ports per ESX 4 or ESXi 4 Host ? Answer: The maximum number of uplinks per ESX 4 or ESXi 4 Host is 32 uplinks. Q.Can we install vCenter Server on a 64 bit Windows OS ? Answer: Yes, vCenter Server can be installed on both 32-bit and 64-bit Windows OS. Q.Does ESX/ESXi 4 supports round robin multipathing policy ? Answer: Yes besides fixed (preferred) and most recently used (MRU), ESX/ESXi 4 now supports round robin multipathing policy and it has to be configured on the storage level. Q.Can vCenter 4 support a cluster which includes ESX 3.x and ESX 4 hosts ? Answer: Yes, we can cluster legacy ESX 3.x hosts and ESX 4 hosts together in the same cluster. vCenter will have to connect to the flexnet license server to manage the licenses for the legacy hosts. However, new features such as hot add and PCI pass through may not be avaliable to the VMs on legacy hosts. Q.When upgrading from virtual center 2.x to vCenter 4, is there downtime for the host and do we need to re add the ESX hosts back into the inventory ? Answer: No, there's no time for the hosts and existing hosts will remain in the inventory. However, there will be downtime for virtual center. Remember to backup the databases as during the upgrade process, the database schemas are changed and in the event of a upgrade failure, you will not be able to roll back and you will have to do a restore. Q.When we hot add memory to a powered on VM, will the swap file get dynamically increased ? Answer: When we hot add memory to a powered on VM, the swap file size will get dynamically increase. Q.When we hot add memory to a powered on VM and the swap file get dynamically increased, what happens if there is not enough disk space to meet the growing vswap file size ? Answer: You will not be able to add memory to that VM that has not enough memory for the swap file to grow and you will receive an error. Q.Can we add USB controllers to our VM in ESX/ESXi 4 ? Answer: Yes, we now have the ability to hot plug USB controller into our VMs while they are running. However, the usb device has to be connected to the ESX Server and not the client local machine. Q.When installing convertor plug-in, I get a 404 error and the installation halts ? Answer: During installation of vCenter Convertor you will have to enter the FQDN instead of the IP address or netbios name as this may cause you to receive the 404 error when installing the vCenter convertor plug-in later. Get more information at custom errors on VM Ware Course Q.Where is Distributed Power Management configured and what are the protocols it uses ? Answer: DPM is configured and managed at the DRS cluster level. It uses IPMI, ILO and Wake On LAN protocols. DRS can use DPM to put under utilized hosts into standby modes to save power consumption. Q.What is new with vCenter 4 user access and role management as compared to the virtual center 2.5 Answer: vCenter 4 allows us the ability to assign administrators to inventory objects such as networks and datastores which were not available with the previous virtual center version. Q.What are the new tasks we can schedule in vCenter 4 task scheduler ? Answer: vCenter 4 task scheduler allows us the ability to schedule a task to increase the resources in a resource pool or virtual machine. This would be good to cater to the needs of virtual machines that will require additional ad-hoc resources such as finance department doing month end closing which may result in resources surge on their machines. Q.How does VMware HA on an ESXi Server sends out heart beat if ESXi does not have a service console ? Answer: VMware HA clusters configured for ESXi Servers uses the vmkernel present on all ESXi Servers to send and receive heart beats. Whereas, on ESX Servers the heartbeat is send and receive through the service console. Therefore, we may not want to cluster ESX and ESXi Servers together in the same cluster. Q.Can we create a cluster with ESX and ESXi Servers ? Answer: Yes. However, VMware HA may not work as both servers uses different port groups to send out heart beats. Vmotion and DRS may still work. This is not a supported practise. Q.What is the limitation for configuring VMware Fault Tolerance for a virtual machine ? Answer: Virtual machine selected for VMware FT must be provisioned with thick disk and not thin disk, if it was provisioned with thin disk, there will be a prompt to inflate the existing disk size. Q.How can I grow an existing VMFS LUN without creating an extent or physical partition ? Answer: We can use the grow function to grow an existing VMFS LUN. If the LUN is out of space, first we must get the storage administrator to grow the same LUN on the storage level with storage array management utilities then within the vCenter Server, we can then select the LUN and grow it. Q.How come the hot add CPU and hot add memory option is greyed out for my VM ? Answer: This feature is currently available only on supported guest OS such as Windows Server 2003 enterprise and Windows 2008 datacenter edition. The type of license also plays a part on the availability of this feature to the VM. Q.What does the channel number stands for in vmhba#:T:C:L? Answer: The only real example that I've seen in vSphere so far, is the software iSCSI initiator. If you give the VMkernel multiple VMkernel ports, and each port can reach (over its own subnet) different targets, they are listed with different "channel" numbers, to indicate whether they use the first VMkernel port, the second or the third. Q.Can we install VMware Consolidated Backup VCB in a virtual machine ? Answer: Yes, VCB can now be installed in a VM and it can be use to backup VMs running on iSCSI and NFS. However, if you wish to backup VMs whose files reside on an FC San LUN, VCB must be installed on a physical machine. Q.Does VMware View 3 work with VMware vSphere 4 ? Answer: No, currently VMware View 3 is only supported on VI 3.5 infrastructure and it is not supported to work with vSphere 4 environment. Q.Is the Service Console root file system still running on ext3 file system ? Answer: No, the SC root file system is now running on VMDK and this is automatically created during initial installation of ESX Servers. Q.Is it possible to configure VMware Update Manager 4 to point to WSUS to grab windows updates ? Answer: No, this is not possible as the VUM Server is unable to communicate with the WSUS Server. Get more information at VM Ware Online Course Q.Can vCenter 4 perform Storage Vmotion on a legacy ESX 3.x Host and convert the VM virtual disk from thick to thin disk ? Answer: Yes, vCenter 4 is able to convert a VM's virtual disk from thick to thin using storage vmotion. Q.I understand that Oracle databases licensed by per CPU, how does that translate to the number of license I have to purchase if I port it over to VM ? Answer: In order for you to run your Oracle DB within a VM on that ESX Server, you have to purchase license for each physical CPU on that ESX Server box. Q.How come there is no standalone boot CD for VMware Convertor 4.0 for me to download for use for cold cloning ? Answer: VMware vCenter Converter Standalone 4.0.1 does not support cold cloning, you must use an earlier Converter edition boot CD 3.0.x Enterprise Edition. Q.When we convert a VM from thin disk to thick disk, which state must the VM be in to perform the request ? Answer: The VM must be in the powered off state in order to be converted from thin to thick disk. Q.What is the default multipathing policy for ESX 4 ? Answer: The hypervisor determines whether to use MRU or Fixed based on the type of arrays it detects. If array is active\passive, it would be treated as MRU. If array is active\active, it would be treated as fixed Q.What is the difference between Enhanced vmxnet and vmxnet3 ? Answer: Vmxnet3 is an improved version of enhanced vmxnet, some benefits and improvements are MSI/MSI-X support, Side Scaling, checksum and TCP Segmentation Offloading (TSO) over IPv6, off-loading and Large TX/RX ring sizes. Q.When we replicate the LUNs over resignaturing only occurs for VMFS LUNs and not RDM, how do we get the replicated RDM to work ? Answer: You can replicate the RDM to a new array, but the mapping file that is configured on the vm itself will no longer be pointing to the same location it was previously, so the RDM has to be re-mapped to the VM in a DR scenario. Q.After installing plug-in inside the VC, I am unable to enable the plug-in and it always shows as disabled. Answer: Go to services.msc ensure that the Virtual Center Management Webservices is running and then relogin the vSphere Client and enable the plug-in. Q.What is the difference between ephemeral and dynamic binding on a distributed virtual switch ? Answer: Ephemeral a new port on every power-on. The port is destroyed when the VM disconnects from the port. Dynamic assign a port when the VM is powered on, it uses a concept similar to DHCP in that if the same port is available then it will renew that one. Q.What is the difference between a thick virtual disk and eager zeroed thick virtual disk ? Answer: Thick virtual disk does not format the VMDK at the time of deployment. This means that data, which needs to be written, must pause while the blocks required to store the data are zeroed out. An eager zeroed thick virtual disk actually formats all of its data blocks at the time of deployment. Q.What kind of permissions do we need to provide when configuring a NAS Server ? Answer: We need to configure permission for the administrator group account rights on the NAS Server so that the ESX Server can access the NAS Server. Q.Storage View tabs in the SAN storage datastore is blank and does not show anything ? Answer: Start the vCenter Mount Service and virtual disk service, then restart the vCenter Server service on the Windows OS. Then click on refresh for the storage view tabs. Q.Can we migrate VMs running on ESX host with VMware Hardware Version 7 to ESX host with VMware Hardware Version 4 ? Answer: No we cannot migrate VMs running on hardware version 7 back to hardware version 4. VMware hardware version 7 only exists on ESX4 and greater. However, it is possible to migrate VMs running on ESX host with hardware version 4 to ESX host running on hardware version 7. Q.Does VMware have an online page where we can search for all the technical white papers ? Yes. Q.Does VCB supports Windows Server 2008 ? Answer: VCB version 1.5 supports Windows Server 2008. Q.What are the security options available for ESX vswitch? Answer: Promiscuous Mode - Reject MAC Address changes - Accept Forged Transmits – Accept Q.What is Promiscuous Mode ? Answer: If the promiscuous mode set to Accept, all the communication is visible to all the virtual machines, in other words all the packets are sent to all the ports on vSwitch. It can be useful when you are running virtual machines with network sniffers to capture packet in that network. Q.What is MAC Address changes? Answer: All the virtual machines nics are provide with the MAC address at the time of creation and it is stored in .VMX file. If the packet doesn't match with the MAC address as same as in the .VMX file , it does not allow incoming traffic to the VM by setting this option as reject. If it is set as Accept,ESX accepts requests to change the effective MAC address to other than the MAC address save din the .VMX file. Q.What is Forged Transmits ? Answer: Which is same as the Mac Address changes setting but it worked for the outgoing traffic but the MAC address changes setting is for incoming traffic. Q.What is VST , EST & VGT? Answer: Please refer my blog post on VST , EST & VGT . Q.What are the Traffic Shaping policies available in the Vswitch? Answer: Traffic shaping policies are disabled by default. There are 3 different traffic shaping policy setting Average Bandwidth Peak Bandwidth Burst Size Average Bandwidth is defined in KBPS Peak bandwidth is defined in KBPS Burst Size is defined in Kilobytes Q.What are the Load balancing policies available in vswitch? Answer: Route based on the originating virtual switch port ID Route based on source MAC hash Route based on IP hash Route based on the originating virtual switch port ID - Chooses an uplink based on the virtual port where the traffic entered the virtual switch. The traffic will be always send with that same uplink until that particular uplink is failed and failed over to another NIC. Route based on source MAC hash - Choose an uplink based on a hash of the source Ethernet MAC address.The traffic will be always send with that same uplink until that particular uplink is failed and failed over to another NIC. Route based on IP hash - Choose an uplink based on a hash of the source and destination IP addresses of each packet. Q.What are the types for Network Failover Detection settings? Answer: Link Status only Beacon Probing Link Status only - Relies solely on the link status provided by the network adapter. This detects failures, such as cable pulls and physical switch power failures, but it cannot detect configuration errors, such as a physical switch port being blocked by spanning tree or misconfigured to the wrong VLAN or cable pulls on the other side of a physical switch. Beacon Probing - Sends out and listens for beacon probes — Ethernet broadcast frames sent by physical adapters to detect upstream network connection failures — on all physical Ethernet adapters in the team. In addition to link status, to determine link failure. This detects many of the failures which are not detected by Link Status. Get more information at VM Ware Course Q.What is the command to check the IP address along with the detailed network cards assigned to the esx server? Ifconfig -a Output appears like this lo Link encap:Local Loopback inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0 UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1 RX packets:9365 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:9365 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 RX bytes:8127714 (7.7 MiB) TX bytes:8127714 (7.7 MiB) vmnic0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:76 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:100772 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:5103 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:35475848 (33.8 MiB) TX bytes:402120 (392.6 KiB) Interrupt:145 vmnic1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:80 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:105895 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:35894203 (34.2 MiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) Interrupt:129 vmnic2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:8A UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:105908 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:35895750 (34.2 MiB) TX bytes:0 (0.0 b) Interrupt:137 vmnic3 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:0C:29:85:0D:94 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:105690 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:228 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:35883279 (34.2 MiB) TX bytes:13680 (13.3 KiB) Interrupt:145 vswif0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:56:4D:69:D1 inet addr:192.168.0.75 Bcast:192.168.0.255 Mask:255.255.255.0 UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:14893 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:2575 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:966513 (943.8 KiB) TX bytes:230028 (224.6 KiB) vswif1 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:56:4F:45:B1 BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1 RX packets:11042 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0 TX packets:30 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0 collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 RX bytes:717158 (700.3 KiB) TX bytes:1260 (1.2 KiB) ========================================================================= You can use "ip addr" command also to view the ip information ========================================================================= # ip addr 1: lo: mtu 16436 qdisc noqueue link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo 2: vmnic0: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000 link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:76 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 3: vmnic1: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000 link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:80 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 4: vmnic2: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000 link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:8a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 5: vmnic3: mtu 1500 qdisc noop qlen 1000 link/ether 00:0c:29:85:0d:94 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 6: vswif0: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000 link/ether 00:50:56:4d:69:d1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192.168.0.75/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global vswif0 7: vswif1: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000 link/ether 00:50:56:4f:45:b1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff 9: vswif2: mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 1000 link/ether 00:50:56:43:92:be brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff inet 192.168.0.96/24 brd 192.168.0.255 scope global vswif2 ========================================================================= Q.What is the command to check the ESX vswitch details, port group and its ip address? Answer: Esxcfg-vswitch -l Outuput will appear like this: ========================================================================= # esxcfg-vswitch -l Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vSwitch0 32 4 32 1500 vmnic0 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks Service Console 0 1 vmnic0 VMkernel 0 1 vmnic0 Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vSwitch1 64 3 64 1500 vmnic2,vmnic1 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks VM-10.0.0 subnet 0 0 vmnic2,vmnic1 VM-192.168.0 subnet 0 0 vmnic2,vmnic1 Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vSwitch2 64 4 64 1500 vmnic3 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks Service Console 2 0 1 vmnic3 Vmotion 0 1 vmnic3 ========================================================================= From the above output, we come to know that we have 3 virtual switches named vSwitch0,vSwitch1 and vSwitch2. 4 uplinks (physical nics in our esx server) Vmnic0,vmnic1,vmnic2,vmnic3. vswitch0 constains 2 port group (Service Console & VMKernel), vSwitch1 contains 2 virtual machine port group (VM-10.0.0 subnet & VM-192.168.0 subnet) and Vswitch2 contains 2 port group (Service Console 2 & Vmotion) port group. Q.What is command to get the information about Service console ports and its IP address assigned to it? Answer: esxcfg-vswif -l Output will appear like this: ========================================================================= # esxcfg-vswif -l Name Port Group/DVPort IP Family IP Address Netmask Broadcast Enabled TYPE vswif0 Service Console IPv4 192.168.0.75 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 true STATIC vswif1 Service Console 2 IPv4 192.168.0.78 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 false STATIC ========================================================================= Q.what is the command to get the information about vmkernel ports and its ip address? Answer: esxcfg-vmknic -l Output will appear like this: ========================================================================= # esxcfg-vmknic -l Interface Port Group/DVPort IP Family IP Address Netmask Broadcast MAC Address MTU TSO MSS Enabled Type vmk0 VMkernel IPv4 192.168.0.110 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 00:50:56:78:7e:73 1500 65535 true STATIC vmk1 Vmotion IPv4 192.168.0.77 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 00:50:56:76:42:df 1500 65535 true S ========================================================================= Q.what is the command to get the information about physical nics installed on ESX server? Answer: esxcfg-vmknic -l Output will appear like this: ========================================================================= # esxcfg-nics -l Name PCI Driver Link Speed Duplex MAC Address MTU Description vmnic0 02:00.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:76 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller (Copper) vmnic1 02:02.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:80 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller (Copper) vmnic2 02:03.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:8a 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller (Copper) vmnic3 02:04.00 e1000 Up 1000Mbps Full 00:0c:29:85:0d:94 1500 Intel Corporation 82545EM Gigabit Ethernet Controller (Copper) ======================================================================== Q.What is command to add the new virtual switch named (vswitch3) to our ESX server? Answer: # esxcfg-vswitch -a vswitch3 Now vswitch3 is created without any port group. ====================================================================== Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vswitch3 64 1 64 1500 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks ======================================================================== Q.What is command to add the new port group named (mgmt)to vswitch (vswitch 3) ? Answer: # esxcfg-vswitch -A mgmt vswitch3 now port group "mgmt" is added. ========================================================================= Switch Name Num Ports Used Ports Configured Ports MTU Uplinks vswitch3 64 1 64 1500 PortGroup Name VLAN ID Used Ports Uplinks mgmt 0 0 ========================================================================= Q.How to add the service console port (vswif2) to our newly created port group "mgmt" with the ip addr 192.168.0.79 ? Answer: # esxcfg-vswif -a vswif2 -i 192.168.0.79 -n 255.255.255.0 -p "mgmt" where i is the ip address, n is subnet mask p is to mentione the port group name ========================================================================= vswif2 mgmt IPv4 192.168.0.79 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 true STATIC ========================================================================= Q.How to add the vmkernal port (vmk2) to our newly created port group "mgmt" with the ip addr 192.168.0.83? Answer: # esxcfg-vmknic -a -i 192.168.0.83 -n 255.255.255.0 -p "mgmt" ========================================================================= vmk2 mgmt IPv4 192.168.0.83 255.255.255.0 192.168.0.255 00:50:56:7b:bd:36 1500 65535 true STATIC ========================================================================= Q.How to change the ip addresss of the existing service console "vswif2"? Answer: nano /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-vswif2. Edit the file with your new id address " 192.168.0.255" then save and exit. ====================================================== DEVICE=vswif2 HOTPLUG=yes MACADDR=00:50:56:43:92:be ONBOOT=yes PORTGROUP=mgmt BOOTPROTO=static BROADCAST=192.168.0.255 DHCPV6C=no IPADDR=192.168.0.96 IPV6INIT=no IPV6_AUTOCONF=no NETMASK=255.255.255.0 ====================================================== restart the network service for ip change to take effect: # service network restart Shutting down interface vswif0: Shutting down interface vswif2: Shutting down loopback interface: Bringing up loopback interface: Bringing up interface vswif0: Another way is to connect to the console of the ESX server and at the shell prompt type in :esxcfg-vswif -d vswif2 This will delete the existing vswif0 and it will give the message about "nothing to flush". then type the below command esxcfg-vswif -a vswif2 -p mgmt -i 192.168.0.97 -n 255.255.255.0 ========================================================================= # esxcfg-vswif -d vswif2 Nothing to flush. # esxcfg-vswif -a vswif2 -p mgmt -i 192.168.0.97 -n 255.255.255.0 Generated New MAC address, 00:50:56:43:92:be for vswif2 Nothing to flush. ========================================================================= Q.How to change the ESX host name and default gateway? Answer: edit the below file: nano /etc/sysconfig/network ====================================== NETWORKING=yes HOSTNAME=ESXTEST1.lab.com GATEWAY=192.168.0.20 GATEWAYDEV=vswif0 IPV6_AUTOCONF=no NETWORKING_IPV6=no ====================================== restart the network service for ip change to take effect: # service network restart Q.How to edit the ESX host file ? Answer: nano /etc/hosts Edit the file to make entry to your host file. ========================================== 127.0.0.1 localhost ::1 localhost 192.168.0.75 ESXTEST1.lab.com ESXTEST1 ========================================== Q.How to edit the DNS entry of your ESX server? Answer: nano /etc/resolv.conf Edit the file to make changes or to make new entry of dns for your ESX server ======================== name server 192.168.0.20 search lab.com ======================= Q.what is the command to query the firewall ports ? Answer: esxcfg-firewall - q Q.How to open the port in firewall (port no 8877, tcp, incoming , name: test3 ? esxcfg-firewall -o 8877,tcp,in,test3 If you are looking for more VMware interview questions Please click I Keep reading for More Interview questions and answers !!!! Q.What is VMware HA? Answer: As per VMware Definition, VMware High Availability (HA) provides easy to use, cost effective high availability for applications running in virtual machines. In the event of server failure, affected virtual machines are automatically restarted on other production servers with spare capacity Q.What is AAM in HA? Answer: AAM is the Legato automated availability management. Prior to vSphere 4.1, VMware's HA is actually re engineered to work with VM's with the help of Legato's Automated Availability Manager (AAM) software. VMware's vCenter agent (vpxa) interfaces with the VMware HA agent which acts as an intermediary to the AAM software. From vSphere 5.0, it uses an agent called “FDM” (Fault Domain Manager). Q.What are pre-requites for HA to work? Answer: 1.Shared storage for the VMs running in HA cluster 2.Essentials plus, standard, Advanced, Enterprise and Enterprise Plus Licensing 3.Create VMHA enabled Cluster 4.Management network redundancy to avoid frequent isolation response in case of temporary network issues (preferred not a requirement) Q.What is maximum number of primary HA hosts in vSphere 4.1? Answer: Maximum number of primary HA host is 5. VMware HA cluster chooses the first 5 hosts that joins the cluster as primary nodes and all others hosts are automatically selected as secondar nodes. Q.How to see the list of Primary nodes in HA cluster? Answer: View the log file named "aam_config_util_listnodes.log" under /var/log/vmware/aam using the below command cat /var/log/vmware/aam/aam_config_util_listnodes.log Q.What is the command to restart /Start/Stop HA agent in the ESX host? Answer: service vmware-aam restart service vmware-aam stop service vmware-aam start Q.Where to located HA related logs in case of troubleshooting? Answer: /Var/log/vmware/aam Q.What the basic troubleshooting steps in case of HA agent install failed on hosts in HA cluster? Answer: 1.Check for some network issues 2. Check the DNS is configured properly 3. Check the vmware HA agent status in ESX host by using below commands service vmware-aam status 4.Check the networks are properly configured and named exactly as other hosts in the cluster. otherwise, you will get the below errors while installing or reconfiguring HA agent. 5. Check HA related ports are open in firewall to allow for the communication Incoming port: TCP/UDP 8042-8045 Outgoing port: TCP/UDP 2050-2250 6. First try to restart /stop/start the vmware HA agent on the affected host using the below commands. In addition u can also try to restart vpxa and management agent in the Host. service vmware-aam restart service vmware-aam stop service vmware-aam start 7. Right Click the affected host and click on "Reconfigure for VMWare HA" to re-install the HA agent that particular host. 8. Remove the affected host from the cluster. Removing ESX host from the cluster will not be allowed untill that host is put into maintenance mode. 9.Alternative solution for 3 step is, Goto cluster settings and uncheck the vmware HA in to turnoff the HA in that cluster and re-enable the vmware HA to get the agent installed. 10. For further troubleshooting , review the HA logs under /Var/log/vmware/aam directory. Q.What is the maximum number of hosts per HA cluster? Answer: Maximum number of hosts in the HA cluster is 32 Q.What is Host Isolation? Answer: VMware HA has a mechanism to detect a host is isolated from rest of hosts in the cluster. When the ESX host loses its ability to exchange heartbeat via management network between the other hosts in the HA cluster, that ESX host will be considered as a Isolated. Q.How Host Isolation is detected? Answer: In HA cluster, ESX hosts uses heartbeats to communicate among other hosts in the cluster.By default, Heartbeat will be sent every 1 second. If a ESX host in the cluster didn't received heartbeat for for 13 seconds from any other hosts in the cluster, The host considered it as isolated and host will ping the configured isolation address(default gateway by default). If the ping fails, VMware HA will execute the Host isolation response Q.What are the different types isolation response available in HA? Power off – All the VMs are powered off , when the HA detects that the network isolation occurs Shut down – All VMs running on that host are shut down with the help of VMware Tools, when the HA detects that the network isolation occurs.If the shutdown via VMWare tools not happened within 5 minutes, VM's power off operation will be executed. This behavior can be changed with the help of HA advanced options. Leave powered on – The VM's state remain powered on or remain unchanged, when the HA detects that the network isolation occurs. Q.How to add additional isolation address for redundancy? Answer: By default, VMWare HA use to ping default gateway as the isolation address if it stops receiving heartbeat.We can add an additional values in case if we are using redundant service console both belongs to different subnet.Let's say we can add the default gateway of SC1 as first value and gateway of SC2 as the additional one using the below value 1. Right Click your HA cluster 2.Goto to advanced options of HA 3. Add the line "das.isolationaddress1 = 192.168.0.1" 4. Add the line "das.isolationaddress2 = 192.168.1.1" as the additional isolation address Q.What is HA Admission control? Answer: As per "VMware Availability Guide", VCenter Server uses admission control to ensure that sufficient resources are available in a cluster to provide failover protection and to ensure that virtual machine resource reservations are respected. Q.What are the 2 types of settings available for admission control? Enable: Do not power on VMs that violate availability constraints Disable: Power on VMs that violate availability constraints Q.What are the different types of Admission control policy available with VMware HA? Answer: There are 3 different types of Admission control policy available.Host failures cluster tolerates Percentage of cluster resources reserved as fail over spare capacity Specify a fail over host Q.How the Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy works? Answer:Select the maximum number of host failures that you can afford for or to guarantee fail over. Prior vSphere 4.1, Minimum is 1 and the maximum is 4. In the Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy , we can define the specific number of hosts that can fail in the cluster and also it ensures that the sufficient resources remain to fail over all the virtual machines from that failed hosts to the other hosts in cluster. VMware High Availability(HA) uses a mechanism called slots to calculate both the available and required resources in the cluster for a failing over virtual machines from a failed host to other hosts in the cluster. Q.What is SLOT? Answer: As per VMWare's Definition, "A slot is a logical representation of the memory and CPU resources that satisfy the requirements for any powered-on virtual machine in the cluster." If you have configured reservations at VM level, It influence the HA slot calculation. Highest memory reservation and highest CPU reservation of the VM in your cluster determines the slot size for the cluster. Q.How to Manually define the HA Slot size? Answer: By default, HA slot size is determined by the Virtual machine Highest CPU and memory reservation. If no reservation is specified at the VM level, default slot size of 256 MHZ for CPU and 0 MB + memory overhead for RAM will be taken as slot size. We can control the HA slot size manually by using the following values. There are 4 options we can configure at HA advanced options related to slot size das.slotMemInMB - Maximum Bound value for HA memory slot size das.slotCpuInMHz - Maximum Bound value for HA CPU slot Size das.vmMemoryMinMB - Minimum Bound value for HA memory slot size das.vmCpuMinMHz - Minimum Bound value for HA CPU slot size Q.How the "Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity" admission control policy works? Answer: In the Percentage of cluster resources reserved as failover spare capacity admission control policy, We can define the specific percentage of total cluster resources are reserved for failover.In contrast to the "Host Failures cluster tolerates admission control policy", It will not use slots. Instead This policy calculates the in the way below 1.It calculates the Total resource requirement for all Powered-on Virtual Machines in the cluster and also calculates the total resource available in host for virtual machines. 2.It calculates the current CPU and Memory Failover capacity for the capacity. 3.If the current CPU and Memory Failover capacity for the cluster < configured failover capacity (ex 25 %) 4.Admission control will not allow to power on the virtual machine which violates the availability constraints. Q.How the "Specify a failover host" admission control policy works? Answer: In the Specify a failover host" admission control policy, We can define a specific host as a dedicated failover host. Whenisolation response is detected, HA attempts to restart the virtual machines on the specified failover host.In this Approach, dedicated failover hist will be sitting idle without actively involving or not participating in DRS load balancing.DRS will not migrate or power on placement of virtual machines on the defined failover host. Q.What is VM Monitoring status? Answer: HA will usually monitors ESX hosts and reboot the virtual machine in the failed hosts in the other host in the cluster in case of host isolation but i need the HA to monitors for Virtual machine failures also. here the feature called VM monitoring status as part of HA settings.VM monitoring restarts the virtual machine if the vmware tools heartbeat didn't received with the specified time using Monitoring sensitivity. Q.What is VMware Fault Tolerance? Answer: VMware Fault Tolerance is a component of VMware vSphere and it provides continuous availability to applications by preventing downtime and data loss of Virtual machines in the event of ESX server failures. Q.What is the name of the technology used by VMware FT? Answer: VMware FT using a technology called vLockstep technology Q.How do i check my host for FT compatibility from vSphere client? Answer: One way from vSphere client is to run the cluster complaince check from profile compliance tab of your cluster. The below checks as specified below will be performed as part of the compliance check. Validate that Fault Tolerancelogging NIC speed is at least 1000 Mbps. Validate that power management is supported on the host Validate that Fault Tolerance logging is enabled. Validate that VMotion NIC speed is at least 1000 Mbps. Validate that all the hosts in the cluster have the same build for Fault Tolerance Validate that the host hardware supports Fault Tolerance. Validate that VMotion is enabled. Validate that at least one shared datastore exists Q.What is FT Logging Traffic? Answer: FT logging is the one of option in VMkernel port setting which is similar to enable vmotion option in the vmkernel port. when FT is enabled for the virtual machine, all the inputs (disk read.. wirte,etc..) of the primary virtual machine are recorded and sent to the secondary VM over via FT logging enabled VMkernel port. Q.How to Enable FT Logging in VMkernel Port? Answer: GO the ESX host -> Configuration-> Networking -> Properties of Virtual switch with the VMkernel portgroup configured Q.How do you configure or enable FT for the virtual machine ? Answer: FT can be enabled only per virtual machine basis not at the cluster or ESX level. Right-click the virtual Machine -> Fault Tolerance -> Turn on Fault Tolerance Q.How does the FT enabled virtual machine will be differentiated with non FT VM's in vSphere client? Answer: FT Enabled Virtual machine will appear in Dark Blue colour as compared to non-protected virtual machines. By default, Only Primary virtual machine will appear under the cluster and ESX host. To take a look at the secondary VM , Go to Virtual Machines tab of the Cluster or Host. Q.How Does VMware Fault Tolerance Work? Answer: When you enable Fault Tolerance for the virtual machine, a secondary virtual machine will be created to work with the primary virtual machine in which you have enabled FT. The primary and secondary virtual machine resides on a different ESX hosts in the cluster. Whatever the events or actions performed by the primary VM will be transmitted via gigabit Ethernet network to be replayed by the secondary virtual machine using VLockstep technology. Eventhough both the primary and secondary virtual machines appear as a single entity and access a common disk, both running with the single IP address, MAc address but writes are only performed by the primary virtual machine.The primary and secondary virtual machines sends heartbeat between each other frequently with millisecond intervals to the check for the availability. If either of the virtual machine loses the heartbeat, other virtual machine will take over the primary virtual machine role immediately. Q.What happens when you enabled Fault Tolerance for your virtual machine? Answer: When you enable Fault Tolerance for the virtual machine, a secondary virtual machine (live shadow image of the primary) will be created to work with the primary virtual machine in which you have enabled FT. The primary and secondary virtual machine resides on a different ESX hosts in the cluster. Q.What will happen when the ESX host of primary VM failed? Answer: When a failure is detected on the primary VM's ESX host, the secondary virtual machine which is running on the another ESX server in the same cluster will takes the place of the first one with the least possible interruption of service. Q.If vCenter is down, will the FT work? Answer: vCenter server is only required to enable FT on the virtual machine.once it is configured, vCenter is not required to be in online for FT to work. FT failover between primary and secondary will occure even if the vCenter is down. Q.How does Vmware FT differs from VMware HA? Answer: 1.VMware HA is enabled per cluster basis but FT is enabled per VM basis. 2. In case of ESX host failure, virtual machines in the failed host are restarted and powered-on on the other active hosts in HA cluster. So the restart duration of the virtual machine is the downtime for the virtual machine in HA cluster. But in FT enabled virtual machine, there is no downtime. In case of host failure, secondary VM will become primary and continuing the execution from the exact point where the primary VM is left off or failed. It happens automatically without data loss, without downtime and with a little delay. Users will not see any interruption. Q.What are the three port groups present in ESX server networking Answer: Virtual Machine Port Group - Used for Virtual Machine Network Service Console Port Group - Used for Service Console Communications 3. VMKernel Port Group - Used for VMotion, iSCSI, NFS Communications Q.What is the use of a Port Group? Answer: The port group segregates the type of communication. Q.What are the type of communications which requires an IP address for sure ? Answer: Service Console and VMKernel (VMotion and iSCSI), these communications does not happen without an ip address (Whether it is a single or dedicated) Q.In the ESX Server licensing features VMotion License is showing as Not used, why? Answer: Even though the license box is selected, it shows as "License Not Used" until, you enable the VMotion option for specific vSwitch Q.How the Virtual Machineort group communication works ? Answer: All the vm's which are configured in VM Port Group are able to connect to the physical machines on the network. So this port group enables communication between vSwitch and Physical Switch to connect vm's to Physical Machine's Q.Does the vSwitches support VLAN Tagging? Why? Answer: Yes, The vSwitches support VLAN Tagging, otherwise if the virtual machines in an esx host are connected to different VLANS, we need to install a separate physical nic (vSwitch) for every VLAN. That is the reason vmware included the VLANtagging for vSwitches. So every vSwitch supports upto 1016 ports, and BTW they can support 1016 VLANS if needed, but an ESX server doesn’t support that many VM’s. :) Q.What is Promiscuous Mode on vSwitch ? What happens if it sets to Accept? Answer: If the promiscuous mode set to Accept, all the communication is visible to all the virtual machines, in other words all the packets are sent to all the ports on vSwitch If the promiscuous mode set to Reject, the packets are sent to inteded port, so that the intended virtual machine was able to see the communication. Q.What is MAC address Changes ? What happens if it is set to Accept ? Answer: When we create a virtual machine the configuration wizard generates a MAC address for that machine, you can see it in the .vmx (VM Config) file. If it doesn't matches with the MAC address in the OS this setting does not allow incoming traffic to the VM. So by setting Reject Option both MAC addresses will be remains same, and the incoming traffic will be allowed to the VM. Q.What is Forged Transmits ? What happens if it is set to Accept ? Answer: When we create a virtual machine the configuration wizard generates a MAC address for that machine, you can see it in the .vmx (VM Config) file. If it doesn't matches with the MAC address in the OS this setting does not allow outgoing traffic from the VM. So by setting Reject Option both MAC addresses will be remains same, and the outgoing traffic will be allowed from the VM. Q.What are the core services of VC ? Answer: VM provisioning , Task Scheduling and Event Logging Q.Can we do vMotion between two datacenters ? If possible how it will be? Answer: Yes we can do vMotion between two datacenters, but the mandatory requirement is the VM should be powered off. Q.What is VC agent? and what service it is corresponded to? What are the minimum req's for VC agent installation ? Answer: VC agent is an agent installed on ESX server which enables communication between VC and ESX server. The daemon associated with it is called vmware-hostd , and the service which corresponds to it is called as mgmt-vmware, in the event of VC agent failure just restart the service by typing the following command at the service console " service mgmt-vmware restart " VC agent installed on the ESX server when we add it to the VC, so at the time of installtion if you are getting an error like " VC Agent service failed to install ", check the /Opt size whether it is sufficient or not. Q.How can you edit VI Client Settings and VC Server Settings ? Answer: Click Edit Menu on VC and Select Client Settings to change VI settings Click Administration Menu on VC and Select VC Management Server Configuration to Change VC Settings Q.What are the files that make a Virtual Machine ? Answer: .vmx - Virtual Machine Configuration File .nvram - Virtual Machine BIOS .vmdk - Virtual Machine Disk file .vswp - Virtual Machine Swap File .vmsd - Virtual MAchine Snapshot Database .vmsn - Virtual Machine Snapshot file .vmss - Virtual Machine Suspended State file .vmware.log - Current Log File .vmware-#.log - Old Log file Q.What are the devices that can be added while the virtual Machine running Answer: In VI 3.5 we can add Hard Disk and NIC's while the machine running. In vSphere 4.0 we can add Memory and Processor along with HDD and NIC's while the machine running Q.How to set the time delay for BIOS screen for a Virtual Machine? Answer: Right Click on VM, select edit settings, choose options tab and select boot option, set the delay how much you want. Q.What is a template ? Answer: We can convert a VM into Template, and it cannot be powered on once its changed to template. This is used to quick provisioning of VM's. Q.What to do to customize the windows virtual machine clone,? Answer: copy the sysprep files to Virtual center directory on the server, so that the wizard will take the advantage of it. Q.What to do to customize the linux/unix virtual machine clone,? Answer: VC itself includes the customization tools, as these operating systems are available as open source. Q.Does cloning from template happens between two datacenters ? Answer: Yes.. it can, if the template in one datacenter, we can deploy the vm from that template in another datacenter without any problem. Q.What are the common issues with snapshots? What stops from taking a snapshot and how to fix it ? Answer: If you configure the VM with Mapped LUN's, then the snapshot failed. If it is mapped as virtual then we can take a snapshot of it. If you configure the VM with Mapped LUN's as physical, you need to remove it to take a snapshot. Q.What are the settings that are taken into to consideration when we initiate a snapshot ? Answer: Virtual Machine Configuration (What hardware is attached to it) State of the Virtual Machine Hard Disk file ( To revert back if needed) State of the Virtual Machine Memory (if it is powered on) Q.What are the requirements for Converting a Physical machine to VM ? Answer: An agent needs to be installed on the Physical machine VI client needs to be installed with Converter Plug-in A server to import/export virtual machines Q.What is VMWare consolidated backup ? Answer: It is a backup framework, that supports 3rd party utilities to take backups of ESX servers and Virtual Machines. Its not a backup service. contact for more on VMWare Online TrainingContinue reading